ارزیابی اثرات کم‌آبیاری بر کارآیی مصرف آب و برخی شاخص‌های رشد سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)، در حضور کودهای زیستی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران،

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران،

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران،

10.22069/ejcp.2022.19462.2449

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)، بعد از برنج و گندم از نظر میزان مصرف، سومین محصول مهم در جهان است. این محصول برای دستیابی به رشد مناسب و در نهایت عملکرد قابل قبول به آبیاری مطلوب نیاز دارد. با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی ایران، مطالعه اثرات کم‌آبیاری و بررسی روش‌های افزایش مقاومت سیب زمینی به کم آبی ضرورت دارد، که به این منظور بررسی عملکرد، کارآیی مصرف آب و برخی شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک رشد تحت تاثیر کودهای زیستی تحت شرایط کم‌آبی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور بررسی اثر کم‌آبیاری و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد غده، شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک و کارآیی مصرف آب سیب زمینی در دو سال زراعی 1398 و 1399، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان اجرا شد. در هر سال تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دور آبیاری در چهار سطح (آبیاری پس از 70، 90، 110 و 130 میلی‌متر تبخیر تجمعی از تشت تبخیر کلاس A) و کود زیستی بود که در شش سطح شامل بیوفسفات، میکوریزا Glomus mossea، میکوریزا Glomus fasciculotum، ترکیب بیوفسفات + میکوریزا G.mossea، ترکیب بیوفسفات + میکوریزا G. fasciculotum و شاهد به بصورت فاکتوریل اجرا شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که افزایش تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد گردید ولی کاربرد کودهای زیستی منجر به بهبود اثرات سوء تنش خشکی شد. بر اساس نتایج، تنش خشکی 130 میلی‌متر تبخیر نسبت به تیمار 70 میلی‌متر تبخیر (شاهد)، منجر به کاهش صفاتی مانند عملکرد و سطح برگ شد که این کاهش به ترتیب برابر با 79/46 و 81/46 درصد بود. نتایج مربوط به عملکرد سیب‌زمینی نشان داد که استفاده از کودهای زیستی G. mossea، G. fasciculotum و بیوفسفات بیشترین تاثیر را بر روی صفات عملکرد غده و شاخص سطح برگ داشت. بهبود عملکرد غده در شرایط تنش خشکی شدید برای کودهای زیستی: گلوموس موسه‌آ، گلوموس فاسیکولاتوم، بیوفسفات، ترکیب باکتری بیوفسفات و گلوموس موسه‌آ و ترکیب باکتری بیوفسفات و گلوموس فاسیکولاتوم نسبت به تیمار شاهد به‌ترتیب برابر بود با 65/38، 41/37، 63/32، 11/20 و 91/12 درصد بود. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کود زیستی گلوموس فاسیکولاتوم و موسه‌آ در تیمار تنش شدید خشکی به‌ترتیب منجر به تعدیل اثرات تنش به مقدار 36/36 و 30 درصد نسبت به عدم استفاده از کود زیستی شد. کاربرد کودهای زیستی در تمام تیمارهای آبیاری، اثر سوء ناشی از تنش خشکی را در شاخص کارآیی مصرف آب تعدیل نمود. استفاده از کودهای زیستی گلوموس موسه‌آ، فاسیکولاتوم و بیوفسفات منجر به افزایش شاخص کارآیی مصرف آب در تیمار تنش خشکی شدید نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب به میزان 38/38، 6/36 و 87/30 درصد گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: بنابراین استفاده از کودهای زیستی میکوریزا گلوموس فاسیکولاتوم، گلوموس موسه‌آ و بیوفسفات به صورت جداگانه برای مناطقی که در طول فصل کشت سیب‌زمینی دچار تنش خشکی می‌شوند توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the effects of deficit irrigation on water use efficiency and some growth indices of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), in the presence of biofertilizers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Nemati 1
  • Mohammad Ali Aboutalebian 2
  • Mehrdad Chaichi 3
1 Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali University, Hamadan
2 Agronomy Department,, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Assistant professor, Department of Seed and Plant Improvement Research, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources,
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), is the third most important crop in the world after rice and wheat in terms of consumption. This crop needs optimal irrigation to achieve proper growth and ultimately acceptable yield. Considering the climatic conditions of the Iran, it is necessary to study the effects of deficit irrigation on potato and to investigate the methods of increasing the drought stress resistance of this crop.
Materials and methods: In order to investigate the tuber yield, physiological indices and water use efficiency of potato in the two cropping years 2019-2020, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Agricultural Research and Training Center of Natural Resources of Hamadan Province. Each year, the experimental treatments included irrigation interval as the first factor at four levels (irrigation after 70, 90, 110 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from Class A evaporation pan) and the second factor was bio-fertilizer at six levels. Bio-phosphate (B), Glomus. mossea (GM), G. fasciculotum (GF), G. mossea+ Bio-phosphate (BGM), G. fasciculotum + Bio-phosphate (BGF) and Control (C) were administered factorially.
Results: The results showed that increasing irrigation stress reduced tuber yield but the application of Bio-fertilizers improved the adverse effects of drought stress. The results also showed that the drought stress of 130 mm evaporation compared to the treatment of 70 mm evaporation (Control), led to a decrease in tuber yield and leaf area index, by 46.79 and 46.81%, respectively. The results related to potato yield showed that the use of three bio-fertilizers G. mossea, G. fasciculotum and Bio-phosphate had the greatest effect on tuber yield and leaf area index. The improvement tuber yield under conditions of severe drought stress by using bio-fertilizer treatments compared to the control was 38.65% for G. mossea, 37.41% for G. fasciculatum, 32.63% for bio-phosphate, 20.11% for bio-phosphate + G. mossea and 12.91% for bio-phosphate + G. fasciculatum. Based on the results the application of Glomus fasciculatum and G. mossea bio-fertilizers in the treatment of severe drought stress modified the stress effects by 36.36 and 30%, respectively, compared to the non-use of bio-fertilizer. Application of biofertilizers in all irrigation treatments moderated the adverse effect of drought stress on water use efficiency index. The use of Glomus musea, G. fasciculatum and biophosphate biofertilizers led to an increase in water use efficiency index in severe drought stress treatment compared to the control treatment by 38.38, 36.6 and 30.87%, respectively.
Conclusion: Therefore, the use of mycorrhizae G. fasciculatum and G. mossea also bio-Phosphate is recommended separately for areas that suffer from drought stress during the potato growing season.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-Phosphate
  • Drought stress
  • Evaporation pan
  • Leaf area
  • Mycorrhiza fungus
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