تاثیر اسید سالیسیلیک بر عملکرد پنبه و القای مقاومت علیه تنش‌ زیستی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: تنش‌های زیستی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد پنبه را تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهند. بیماری سوختگی برگی آلترناریایی ناشی از Alternaria alternata یکی از بیماری‌های برگی بسیار شایع پنبه (Gossypium spp.) می‌باشد که در اکثر مناطق کشت پنبه وجود دارد. مهار بیماری از طریق مقاومت ژنتیکی به ‌دلیل فقدان سطح مقاومت بالا در ارقام تجارتی قابل کنترل نیست. در دهه‌های اخیر موثر بودن نمک‌های تحریک‌کننده‌ مقاومت علیه بیمارگرهای گیاهی به عنوان روش دوستدار محیط زیست برای مهار بیماری‌های گیاهی مطرح شده است. از این رو، تاثیر اسید سالیسیلیک بر مهار بیماری، رشد گیاه و برخی از ویژگی‌های بیوشیمیایی دو رقم از پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) شامل ساحل و گلستان تحت تنش بیمارگر A. alternata انجام شد.

مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش با چهار سطح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (0، 5/0، 1 و 5 میلی‌مولار) به ‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری کاملا تصادفی و با چهار تکرار در شرایط مزرعه طراحی شد. گیاهان پنبه 20 روزه توسط محلول اسید سالیسیلیک محلول‌-پاشی شدند و محلول‌پاشی دو مرتبه با فاصله 14 روز تکرار شد. تاثیر اسید سالیسیلیک بر تغییر صفات رشدی (ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه زایا)، عملکرد و شاخص بیماری در دو رقم از پنبه شامل ساحل و گلستان ارزیابی گردید. هم‌چنین، تغییر میزان فنل کل، فعالیت پراکسیداز و میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدئید با استفاده از روش‌های مبتنی بر رنگ‌سنجی اندازه‌گیری شد.

یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که جدایه A. alternate مورد استفاده در این بررسی روی رقم‌های پنبه بیماری‌زا بوده است. اگرچه، رقم‌ گلستان در مقابل بیماری لکه برگی آلترناریایی حساسیت بیشتری نسبت به رقم‌های دیگر ساحل داشته است. کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک روی برگ عملکرد، شاخص بیماری، کل فنل، فعالیت پراکسیداز و میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدئید را به طور معنی‌داری تحت تاثیر قرار می‌داد. این ترکیب در غلظت 5 میلی‌مولار با افزایش معنی‌دار میزان ترکیب‌های فنلی و فعالیت پراکسیداز، کاهش مالون‌دی‌آلدئید، تنش اکسیداتیو را کاهش
می‌داد که با کاهش شدت بیماری همراه بود. عملکرد و تنش اکسیداتیو در رقم ساحل به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از رقم گلستان تحت تاثیر قرار می‌گرفت. ارتباط بین شاخص بیماری و عملکرد، هم‌چنین تجمع فنل، فعالیت پراکسیداز و میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدئید در برگ و شاخص بیماری در حضور غلظت‌های مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک به‌ صورت مدل‌های رگرسیونی به‌ دست آمد.

نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، اسید سالیسیلیک با کاهش آلودگی به A. alternata و کاهش تنش اکسیداتیو، عملکرد مطلوبی را برای گیاهان پنبه فراهم می‌کند. اگرچه، موثر بودن آن بین دو رقم پنبه مورد بررسی متفاوت بوده است. از این رو، استفاده از اسید سالیسیلیک به‌عنوان یک رهیافت زیست‌فن‌آور می‌تواند برای بهبود مقاومت به بیماری لکه برگی آلترناریایی پیشنهاد شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of salicylic acid on cotton yield and induced resistance against biological stress

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Esmaeel Razavi
Department of Plant Protection, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Biotic stresses affect the yield and yield components of cotton. Alternaria leaf spot (caused by Alternaria alternata) is one of the most common foliar diseases of cotton (Gossypium spp.) and occurs in most cotton-growing regions of the world. Control of the disease through genetic resistance is not possible at present because no cotton cultivars with high levels of resistance to A. alternata are commercially available. In the past decade, the effectiveness of resistance-inducer salts against plant pathogens gives an environmentally friendly option for disease control. Therefore, the impact of salicylic acid on disease control, plant growth and some biochemical constituents of two cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Golestan and Sahel under A. alternata stress, were evaluated.

Materials and methods: Treatments, four levels salicylic acid (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mM) and two level inoculation factor (control and pathogen) as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications were studied in field condition. 20-day old cotton plants were sprayed with different concentrations of salicylic acid and the treatment were repeated two times at 14 days intervals. Effect of salicylic acid on the differences in growth traits (plant height and number of sympodial branch), yield and disease index in two cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Golestan and Sahel, were evaluated. Also, changes of total phenol, peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde contents were measured by chlorometric analysis.

Results: The results showed that the isolate of A. alternata tested in this experiment were pathogenic to cotton cultivars. Although, Golestan cultivar were more susceptible to alternaria leaf spot than Sahel cultivars. Foliar applications of salicylic acid have been shown to significantly affect yield, disease index, total phenol, peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde contents in two cotton cultivars. 5 mM salicylic acid by significant increasing total phenol contents and peroxidase activity, alleviated the malondialdehyde contents and oxidative stress lead to low disease severity in all cultivars. Yield and oxidative stress affected significantly in Sahel in comparison to Golestan cultivar. The relationship between disease index and yield and leaf phenol accumulation, peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde contents in relation to disease index in the presence of salicylic acid concentrations was described as regresional models.

Conclusion: Overall, this research revealed that seedlings treatment with salicylic acid has provided most optimal performance against A. alternata infection and oxidative stress. Although, the effect was different in two cotton cultivars. Hence, using of salicylic acid as a biotechnologic approach be suggested for improve plant to alternaria leaf spot resistance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternaria leaf spot
  • Cotton cultivar
  • Induced resistance
  • Salicylic acid
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