اثر کشت مستقیم و نشایی کلزای بهاره در تراکم‌های مختلف بوته و در شرایط کشت تأخیری بر رشد و عملکرد دانه در منطقه مغان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل، اردبیل (مغان)، ایران

2 استادیار زراعت، بخش تحقیقات دانه‌های روغنی، موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه و نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش

10.22069/ejcp.2022.19646.2464

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: رعایت تاریخ کاشت مناسب در کلزا امکان رشد و نمو کافی را به گیاه زراعی داده و اثرات خسارت‌زای ناشی از تنش‌ها را به حداقل می‌رساند. از طرف دیگر، بارندگی‌های اوایل پاییز و مشکل تهیه زمین به‌موقع، در دسترس نبودن زمین به دلیل برداشت کشت‌های تابستانه مانند بادام‌زمینی در منطقه مغان باعث تأخیر در تاریخ کاشت به‌هنگام محصولات پاییزه مانند کلزا می‌شود. مشکلات تأمین آب جهت آبیاری اول برای استقرار و سبز مناسب مزرعه کلزا، حمله آفاتی مانند کک در کشت‌های کرپه، احتمال خسارت تنش سرما و یخ‌زدگی و همچنین، افت عملکرد به دلیل برخورد کلزا به تنش خشکی و گرمای آخر فصل به دلیل تأخیر در کاشت از مشکلات عمده زراعت کلزا در منطقه مغان است. در این میان، کشت نشایی کلزا می‌تواند مشکلات موجود را از میان برداشته و راهکار مناسبی در شرایط مذکور باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: به‌منظور ارزیابی زراعی و مقایسه کشت مستقیم و کشت نشایی کلزای بهاره در تراکم‌های مختلف بوته و در شرایط کشت تأخیری در منطقه مغان، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 1399-1398 و 1400-1399 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت مستقیم بذر به عنوان شاهد به میزان 6 کیلوگرم در هکتار، کشت نشایی با تراکم‌های 20، 30 و 40 بوته در متر مربع هر کدام به دو صورت ریشه لخت و ریشه پر و نیز با یک نشا و دو نشا در حفره کاشت بودند. در طی آزمایش از صفات روز تا شروع گلدهی، روز تا پایان گلدهی، مدت گلدهی، طول دوره رشد، ارتفاع بوته، ارتفاع اولین خورجین از سطح زمین، قطر ساقه، تعداد شاخه فرعی، طول خورجین، قطر خورجین، تعداد خورجین در بوته، تعداد دانه در خورجین، وزن‌هزاردانه و عملکرد دانه یادداشت‌برداری شد. همبستگی بین صفات و تجزیه علیت برای بررسی اثرات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر عملکرد دانه انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که کشت نشایی به طور میانگین باعث کاهش معنی‌دار صفات فنولوژیک شروع گلدهی (5/145 درجه روز رشد)، پایان گلدهی (8/207 درجه روز رشد) و طول دوره رشد (9/158 درجه روز رشد) و افزایش مدت گلدهی (6/156 درجه روز رشد) در مجموع سال‌های آزمایشی شد. همچنین، کشت نشایی باعث افزایش معنی‌دار در صفات قطر ساقه (8/2 میلی‌متر)، تعداد شاخه فرعی (3/2)، قطر خورجین (6/0 میلی‌متر)، تعداد خورجین در بوته (2/158)، تعداد دانه در خورجین (3/3)، وزن هزاردانه (69/0 گرم) و عملکرد دانه (4/1894 کیلوگرم در هکتار) شد. در تیمار شاهد به‌صورت کشت مستقیم تأخیری، عملکرد دانه در مجموع سال‌های آزمایشی افت عملکرد ۲/6۲ درصد (7/1150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در مقایسه با تیمارهای کشت نشایی (1/3045 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از خود نشان داد. با مقایسه میانگین تیمارهای ریشه لخت مشخص شد که تیمار ۴۰ بوته در متر مربع نسبت به تیمارهای 30 و 20 بوته در متر مربع از تعداد خورجین در بوته، وزن هزاردانه و عملکرد دانه بالاتری برخوردار بود و اختلاف معنی‌داری با آن‌ها داشت. همبستگی فنوتیپی بین صفات زراعی نشان داد عملکرد دانه با صفات فنولوژیک شروع گلدهی (**90/0-)، پایان گلدهی (**90/0-) و طول دوره رشد (**77/0-) همبستگی منفی و معنی‌دار و با صفت مدت گلدهی (52/0) همبستگی مثبت اما غیرمعنی‌دار داشت. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون گام به گام نشان داد که دو صفت تعداد خورجین در بوته (*241/0) و قطر خورجین (*229/0) به ترتیب بیش‌ترین تأثیر مستقیم و مثبت معنی‌دار و صفت پایان گلدهی (**559/0-) بیش‌ترین تأثیر مستقیم منفی و معنی‌دار را روی عملکرد دانه داشتند.
نتیجه‌گیری: در شرایط کشت تاخیری، کشت نشایی ریشه لخت کلزا با تراکم 40 بوته در متر مربع و یک نشا در حفره کاشت نسبت به کشت نشایی ریشه‌پر و کشت مستقیم دارای برتری از نظر عملکرد دانه و صفات فنولوژیک بوده و قابل توصیه در منطقه مغان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of direct cultivation and transplantation on growth and seed yield of spring canola in different plant densities under delayed conditions in Moghan region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Zeinalzadeh-Tabrizi 1
  • Hamid Jabbari 2
  • Farzin Parchami-Araghi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil (Moghan), Iran Postal code: 56951-57451
2 Department of Oilseed Crops, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: A proper planting date in canola allows the crop to grow sufficiently and minimizes the damaging effects of stress. On the other hand, early autumn rains and the problem of timely farm preparation and unavailability of farm fields due to summer crops such as peanuts in the Moghan region cause delays in planting dates for autumn crops such as canola. Problems such as supplying primary soil water for crop establishment of canola fields, pest damage such as flea beetles in delayed cultivation, the possibility of damage from cold and frost stress, as well as the decline in yield due to canola exposure to drought and heat stress due to delayed planting are the main problems of canola cultivation in the Moghan region. Because of this, canola transplanting can solve the problems and be a good choice in these kinds of situations.
Materials and methods: In order to agronomic evaluation of direct cultivation and transplantation of spring canola in different plant densities under delayed conditions in the Moghan region, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in two cropping years, 2019-2020 and 2020-2021. Experimental treatments included direct sowing of seeds as a control at a rate of 6 kg/ha; transplanting with densities of 20, 30, and 40 plants per square meter, each density with both bare-root transplant and potted-root transplant; and also with one seedling or two seedlings in the planting hole. During the experiment, traits including flowering initiation, flowering completion, flowering period, growth period, plant height, first pod height, stem diameter, branch number, pod length, pod thickness, pod number, seed number per pod, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield were recorded. Correlations among traits and path analysis were performed to investigate seed yield's direct and indirect effects.
Results: The results showed that transplanting on average caused a significant decrease in phenological traits such as flowering initiation (145.5 GDD), flowering completion (207.8 GDD), growth period (158.9 GDD), and increased flowering period (156.6 GDD) during the experimental years. Also, transplanting caused a significant increase in stem diameter (2.8 mm), branch number (2.3), pod diameter (0.6 mm), number of pods per plant (158.2), number of seeds per pod (3.3), 1000-seed weight (0.69 g) and seed yield (1894.4 kg/ha). In control treatment as delayed direct sowing, seed yield in total experimental years showed a yield decline of 62.2% (1150.7 kg/ha) compared to transplanting cultivation treatments (3045.1 kg/ha). Comparing the bare-root transplant treatments, it was found that 40 plants per square meter had a higher number of pods per plant, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield than the 30 and 20 treatments and had a significant difference with them. Phenotypic correlation among agronomic traits showed seed yield had a negative and significant correlation with phenological traits: flowering initiation (-0.90**), flowering completion (-0.90**), and growth period (-0.77**) with a positive and non-significant effect on the flowering period (0.52). The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that the number of pods per plant (0.241*) and pod thickness (0.229*) had the most significant direct and positive effects on seed yield, respectively, while flowering completion (-0.559**) had the most negative and significant direct effect on seed yield.
Conclusion: Under delayed conditions, bare-root transplanting of canola with 40 plants per square meter density and one seedling in the planting hole was superior in terms of seed yield and phenological traits compared to potted-root transplanting and direct cultivation and is recommended in Moghan region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • correlation
  • Path analysis
  • Plant density
  • Stepwise regression analysis
  • Transplant
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