تجزیه گرافیکی روابط بین صفات و پایداری ژنوتیپ‌های باقلا با استفاده از روش‌ بای‌پلات

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،

2 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار- بخش تحقیقات ژنتیک و بانک ژن گیاهی ملی ایران، موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر سازمان تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

10.22069/ejcp.2022.19563.2457

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: باقلا در سراسر جهان به‌عنوان یک منبع غنی از پروتئین قابل استفاده برای انسان و دام شناخته شده‌است. این گیاه با تثبیت بیولوژیک نیتروژن به پایداری سیستم‌های زراعی کمک می‌کند. هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه برهمکنش ژنوتیپ × محیط (G×E) و تعیین ژنوتیپ‌های با عملکرد بالا و پایدار باقلا بود. علاوه بر این به منظور انتخاب ژنوتیپ‌ها بر اساس چند صفت و تعیین روابط بین صفات از تجزیه گرافیکی ژنوتیپ × صفت (GT) نیز استفاده شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این تحقیق برای بررسی روابط میان صفات و ارزیابی پایداری لاین‎‌های امید بخش باقلا، 9 لاین امیدبخش و رقم برکت، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گرگان، زنجان (طارم) و زابل در دو سال زراعی (1395-96 و 97-1396) بررسی شدند. ارتفاع بوته و ارتفاع اولین غلاف از سطح زمین قبل از برداشت اندازه‌گیری شد، برداشت در مرحله رسیدگی کامل انجام و تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد غلاف در بوته و وزن صد دانه در ده بوته تصادفی هر کرت اندازه‌گیری شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SAS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت و میانگین‌ها با استفاده از آزمون LSD در سطح احتمال 5٪ مقایسه شدند. روش گرافیکیGGE-Biplot برای تجزیه و تحلیل برهم‌کنش ژنوتیپ × محیط استفاده شد. تعیین روابط بین صفات و شناسایی صفات مناسب برای انتخاب غیرمستقیم جهت بهبود عملکرد با استفاده از روش گرافیکی GTbiplot انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده‌ها نشان داد، اثرات اصلی ژنوتیپ، محیط و برهمکنش ژنوتیپ × محیط بر عملکرد دانه و سایر صفات مورد بررسی در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. پایداری عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ‌های باقلا، با استفاده از روش GGE-Biplot در پنج محیط بررسی شد. بر اساس مدل اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ × محیط (GEI)، 1/95 درصد از تغییرات اثر متقابل توجیه شد. بر اساس نمودار چند ضلعی، دو محیط کلان و ژنوتیپ‌های سازگار هر محیط تعیین شد، در گرگان و طارم لاینG9 و در زابل لاین G1 سازگار بودند. لاین‌های G9، G4، G7 و G1 به‌ترتیب با عملکرد 22/3، 06/3، 88/2 و 87/2 تن در هکتار بالاترین میانگین و پایداری عملکرد دانه را داشتند. بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل GEI و GGE-Biplot، محیط‌ آزمایشی طارم از قدرت تفکیک خوبی برخوردار بود. تجزیه و تحلیل گرافیکی GT رابطه مثبت بین عملکرد و تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد غلاف سبز، شاخص برداشت و ارتفاع پایین‌ترین غلاف را نشان داد، از این رو این صفات را می‌توان به‌عنوان صفات کلیدی در طول فرآیند انتخاب با هدف اصلاح ژنوتیپ‌های باقلا برای عملکرد بالا در نظر گرفت.
نتیجه‌گیری: ژنوتیپ‌هایG9 ، G4 و G7 با دارا بودن عملکرد و پایداری عملکرد به عنوان ارقام ایده‌آل باقلا جهت معرفی شناسایی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Graphic analysis of trait relations and stability of faba bean genotypes using the biplot method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Sheikh 1
  • Hossein Nazari 2
  • Hamid Reza Fanaei 3
1 Assistant professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran.
2 2. Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Zanjan, Iran
3 Associate Prof, Department of Genetics and National Plant Gene Bank of Iran, SPII., AREEO, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. It can be used in diet as a vegetable, green or dried, fresh or canned. It is a very valuable legume crop that contributes to the sustainability of cropping systems by its ability of biological N2 fixation. The aim of the study were to determine the magnitude of G × E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s). Furthermore to evaluating cultivars based on multiple traits and studying relationship among traits, The GT biplot was used.
Materials and methods: In this research to finding interrelationships between different traits and adoptability faba bean promising lines, 9 faba bean lines as well as check cultivar, Barekat were evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications in three agricultural research field stations of Gorgan, Zanjan (Tarom) and , Zabol for two cropping seasons (2016-17 and 2017-18). The plant height (PH) and lowest pod height was calculated before harvesting, in each plot were harvested by hand at harvest maturity stage and seed number/pod (SP), pod number/plant (PN) and hundred seed weight (100SW) measured on ten plants selected randomly from all plots. Data were analyzed using SAS software and the means were compared using LSD test at a probability level of 5%. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1). In order to determining the interrelationships among traits and identifying suitable traits for indirect selection, the genotype by trait (GT) was done.
Results:.Combined analysis of variance showed significant effects of genotype, environment, genotype × environment intraction, on grain yield. Stability in performance of the 10 genotypes was tested using GGE-Biplot approach across five environments. GGE-Biplot analysis using a genotype × environment interaction (GEI) model explained 95.1% of total interaction effect variance. View of polygon graph revealed two superior mega-environments and the compatible genotypes were determined for each mega-environment; Gorgan and Tarom (Line G9), Zabol (Line G1). Lines G9, G4, G7 and G1 with average seed yield of 3.22, 3.06, 2.88 and 2.87 t/ha, respectively, had higher seed yield and yield stability. Based on GEI and GGE-Biplot analysis, Tarom experimental environments had good differentiation ability. The GT biplot for genotype data explained 61% of total variation of the standardized data. GT biplot analysis showed positive relationship between yield and other traits number of pods per plant, Green pod yield, harvest index and Height of lowest pod, they are identified as important traits for yield improvement. Hence, these traits could be considered as key components during the selection process aiming towards the breeding of faba bean genotypes for high yield.
Conclusion: Finally, genotypes G9, G4 and G7 had the highest yield and the most stable genotypes with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended as the superior genotypes for being release as new commercial faba bean cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genotype ×environment Interaction (GEI)
  • Genotype ×Trait (GT) Biplot
  • Ideal genotype
  • Seed yield
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