اثر کاربرد قارچ Rhizophagus intraradices و کود شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ و نخود در کشت مخلوط

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی - اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه ایران،

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران،

10.22069/ejcp.2022.19136.2429

چکیده

اثر کاربرد قارچ Rhizophagus intraradices و کود شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ و نخود در کشت مخلوط

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: کشت مخلوط به عنوان انقلاب سبز جدید می‌تواند با استفاده بهتر از منابع، زمینه را برای تولید پایدار فراهم کند. در مدیریت پایدار بوم‌نظام‌های کشاورزی، کاربرد کودهای زیستی بویژه میکوریزا به‌عنوان مکمل یا جایگزین کودهای شیمیایی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. بر همین اساس مطالعهای با هدف ارزیابی اثر قارچ Rhizophagus intraradices و کودهای شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ و نخود در کشت مخلوط اجرا گردید.
مواد و روشها: یک آزمایش مزرعهای به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 20 تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه در سال زراعی 1398 اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول شامل الگوهای مختلف کشت (P1: کشت خالص گلرنگ، :P2 کشت خالص نخود، :P3 کشت یک ردیف گلرنگ+ یک ردیف نخود، :P4 کشت سه ردیف گلرنگ+ دو ردیف نخود و :P5 کشت، چهار ردیف گلرنگ+ دو ردیف نخود) و فاکتور دوم شامل منابع مختلف کودی:F1) عدم کاربرد کود، :F2قارچ میکوریزا (Rhizophagus intraradices)، :F3 کود شیمیایی توصیه شده و F4: 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ قارچ میکوریزا) بودند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد بیشترین عملکرد دانه گلرنگ (6/ 1906 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و نخود ( 765 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کشت خالص با کاربرد تلفیقی 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ قارچ میکوریزا مشاهده شد. علاوه بر این، بیشترین درصد روغن (51/28 درصد) و عملکرد روغن (71/508 کیلوگرم در هکتار) گلرنگ به‌ترتیب در الگوهای کشت 4:2 و کشت خالص با کاربرد تلفیقی 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ قارچ میکوریزا حاصل شد. علیرغم کاهش عملکرد دانه گلرنگ و نخود در کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص، شاخص نسبت برابری زمین سودمندی کشت مخلوط را تأیید کرد، به طوری که در تمام تیمارهای کشت مخلوط نسبت برابری زمین بالاتر از یک بود و بیشترین مقدار این شاخص (89/1) در تیمار 1:1 با کاربرد 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ قارچ میکوریزا مشاهده شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به شاخص‌های نسبت برابری زمین، بهروه‌وری سیستم و شاخص مالی مخلوط، الگوی کشت یک ردیف گلرنگ+ یک ردیف نخود همراه با کاربرد تلفیقی 50 درصد کود شیمیایی+ قارچ میکوریزا نه تنها منجر به ایجاد تنوع در اکوسیستم‌های کشاورزی و پایداری تولید شد، بلکه در افزایش درآمد اقتصادی و بهره‌وری استفاده از زمین‌های کشاورزی نیز موثر است. در نتیجه استفاده از کودهای زیستی در کشت مخلوط میتواند اثرات زیانبار کودهای شیمیایی را روی محیط زیست کاهش دهد.
واژگان کلیدی: درصد روغن، عملکرد دانه، قارچ میکوریزا آربوسکولار، نسبت برابری زمین.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Rhizophagus intraradices and chemical fertilizer application on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in intercropping

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Haghaninia 1
  • Abdollah Javanmard 2
1 Department of plant production and genetics, faculty of agriculture, university of maragheh.
2 academic member
چکیده [English]

Effect of Rhizophagus intraradices and chemical fertilizer application on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in intercropping
Abstract
Background and objective: Intercropping as a new green revolution can prepare the way for sustainable production by increasing resource use efficiency. In agroecosystems sustainable management, application of biofertilizers especially mycorrhiza as a supplement or alternative for chemical fertilizers is very important. Accordingly, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of application of Rhizophagus intraradices and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under intercropping systems.
Materials and Methods: A field experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with 20 treatments and three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh in 2019. The first factor including different planting patterns (P1: safflower sole cropping, P2: chickpea sole cropping, P3: cropping of a row of safflower+ a row of chickpeas, P4: cropping of three row of safflower+ two row of chickpeas, P5: cropping of four row of safflower+ two row of chickpea) and the second factor including different fertilizer sources (F1: control, F2: application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices), F3: recommended chemical fertilizer and F4: 50% chemical fertilizers + mycorrhiza fungus (AM).
Results: The results showed that the highest seed yield of safflower (1906.6 kg/ha) and chickpea (765 kg/ha) were observed in monoculture with application of 50% chemical fertilizer+ mycorrhizal fungus. Furthermore, the highest of safflower oil content (28.51%) and yield (508.71 kg/ha) were obtained in planting pattern of 4:2 and monoculture with application of 50% chemical fertilizer+ mycorrhizal fungus, respectively. Although, seed yield of safflower and chickpea in monocultures decreased in compared with intercropping, but the land equivalent ratio (LER) in the all planting patterns was higher than one. So that the highest (1.89) LER was observed in planting pattern of 1:1 integrated with 50% chemical fertilizer+ mycorrhizal fungus.
Conclusion: Based on the land equivalent ratio, system productivity and intercropping monetary indices intercropping pattern of 1 row chickpea+ 1 row safflower with application of 50% chemical fertilizers+ mycorrhiza fungus not only leading to agricultural ecosystems diversity and sustainable productivity, but also effective in enhancing economic income and land use efficiency. As a result, application of biofertilizer in intercropping can reduce the detrimental implications of chemical fertilizers on the environment.
Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus, Land equivalent ratio, Oil percent, Seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
  • Oil percent
  • Seed yield
  1. Gitari, H.I., Nyawade, S.O., Kamau, S., Karanja, N.N., Gachene, C.K., Raza, M.A., Maitra, S. and Schulte-Geldermann, E. 2020. Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems. Field Crops Res. 258: 107957.
  2. Tan, Y., Hu, F., Chai, Q., Li, G., Coulter, J.A., Zhao, C., Yu, A., Fan, Z. and Yin, W. 2020. Expanding row ratio with lowered nitrogen fertilization improves system productivity of maize/pea strip intercropping. Eur. J. Agron. 113: 125986.
  3. Mupangwa, W., Nyagumbo, I., Liben, F., Chipindu, L., Craufurd, P. and Mkuhlani, S. 2021. Maize yields from rotation and intercropping systems with different legumes under conservation agriculture in contrasting agro – ecologies. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 306: 107170.
  4. Ma, L., Li, Y., Wu, P., Zhao, X., Gao, X. and Chen, X. 2020. Recovery growth and water use of intercropped maize following wheat harvest in wheat/maize relay strip intercropping. Field Crops Res. 256: 107924.‏
  5. Seyedi, S.M. and Hamzei, J. 2020. Evaluation of advantageous of sunflower-grain legume intercropping. J. Crop Prod. 13: 1. 85-98. (In Persian)
  6. Mencaroni, M., Dal Ferro, N., Furlanetto, J., Longo, M., Lazzaro, B., Sartori, L., Grant, B., Smith, W.N. and Morari, F. 2020. Identifying N fertilizer management strategies to reduce ammonia volatilization: Towards a site-specific approach. J. Environ. Manag. 277: 111445.‏
  7. Gao, , He, N., Yu, G., Chen, W. and Wang, Q. 2014. Long-term effects of different land use types on C, N, and P stoichiometry and storage in subtropical ecosystems: A case study in china. Ecol. Eng.67: 171-181.
  8. Hamidi, H. and Marashi, S. 2018. Effect of different mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on growth traits and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). J. of Plant prod Sci. 8: 1. 13-22. (In Persian)
  9. Ahmadpour-Abnvi, S., Ramroudi, M., Galavi, M. and Shamsaddin-Saied, M. 2019. Effect of biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizer on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under low irrigation conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Sustain Prod. 29: 1. 269-284. (In Persian).
  10. Kour, D., Rana, K.L., Yadav, A.N., Yadav, N., Kumar, M., Kumar, V., Vyas, P., Dhaliwal, H.S. and Saxena, A.K. 2020. Microbial biofertilizers: Bioresources and eco-friendly technologies for agricultural and environmental sustainability. Biocatal Agric. Biotechnol. 23: 101487.‏
  11. Nisi, N., Shokohfar, A. and Payandeh, K. 2021. Effect of bio phosphate fertilizer and triple super phosphate application on yield, yield components, phosphorus and cadmium concentration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. J. Crop Ecophysiol. 14: 56. 551-570. (In Persian)
  12. Marro, N., Cofre, N., Grilli, G., Alvarez, C., Labuckas, D., Maestri, D. and urcelay, C. 2020. Soybean yield, protein content and oil quality in response to interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and native microbial populations from mono-and rotation-cropped soils. Appl. Soil Ecol. 152: 103575.‏
  13. Emmanuel, O.C. and Babalola, O.O. 2020. Productivity and quality of horticultural crops through co-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting bacteria. Microbiol Res. 126569.‏
  14. Varma, A., Prasad, R. and Tuteja, N. 2018. Mycorrhiza nutrient uptake, biocontorol, ecorestoration: Springer.
  15. Abdi, S. and Pirzad, A. 2018. Study of Interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and chemical phosphorous fertilizer on yield, yield components and protein of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). J. Agric. Sci. Sustain Prod. 28: 3. 243-256. (In Persian)
  16. Gholinezhad, E. and Darvishzadeh, R. 2021. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and drought stress on fatty acids profile of sesame (Sesamum indicum). Field Crops Res. 262: 108035.
  17. Saeidi, M., Raei, Y., Amini, R., Taghizadeh, A. and Pasban Eslam, B. 2018. Evaluation of yield and protein content of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) in intercropping with faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under biological and chemical fertilizers. J. Agric. Sci Sustain Prod. 28: 4. 247-260. (In Persian)
  18. Klironomos, J.N., Mouroglis, P., Kendrick, B. and Widden, P. 1993. A Comparison of spatial heterogenecity of VAM fungi in two maple-forest soil. Can. J. Bot. 71: 1472-1480.
  19. Pearson, O. 1993. The cell wall structure and the industrial utilization of the oil para rubber seed in paint manufacture. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 82 p.
  20. Zhang, G., Yang, Z. and Dong, S. 2011. Interspecific competitiveness affects the total biomass yield in an alfalfa and corn intercropping system. Field Crops Res. 124: 66-73.
  21. Singh, M., Singh, U.B., Ram, M., Yadav, A. and Chanotiya, C.S. 2013. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and quality of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) as influenced by intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) under subtropical and temperate climate of India. Ind. Crops Prod. 46: 234-237.
  22. Farhadian Asgarabadi, K. and Eisvand, H.R. 2017. Effects of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent on root morphological characteristics and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under rain-fed conditions. J. Crop Prod. 10: 2. 61-73. (In Persian)
  23. Alinaghipour, M., Mirzakhani, M. and Nozad Namin, K. 2019. The effect of simultaneous cropping on agronomic characteristics of spring safflower cultivars (Cartamus tinctorius) in Aran and Bidgol region. J. Crop Improv. 20: 4. 755-767. (In Persian)
  24. Yang, F., Huang, S., Gao, R., Liu, W., Yong, T., Wang, X., Wu, X. and Yang, W. 2014. Growth of soybean seedling in relay strip intercropping systems in relation to light quantity and red: far- red ratio. Field Crops Res. 155: 245-253.
  25. Gong, X., Dang, K., Liu, L., Zhao, G., Lv, S., Tian, L., Feng, Y., Jin, F., Zhao, Y. and Feng, B. 2021. Intercropping combined with nitrogen input promotes proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) growth and resource use efficiency to increase grain yield on the loess plateau of china. Agric. Water. 243: 106434.‏
  26. Vafadar-Yengeje, L., Amini, R. and Dabbagh mohammdi Nasab, A. 2017. Yield and yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba) in intercropping with moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica) under organic and chemical fertilizers. J. Agric. Sci. Sustain. Prod. 27: 4. 121-136. (In Persian)
  27. Mamnabi, S., Nasrollahzadeh, S., Ghassemi-Golezani, G. and Raei, Y. 2020. Morpho-physiological traits, grain and oil yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus) affected by drought stress and chemical and bio-fertilizers. J. Agric. Sci. Sustain. Prod. 30: 3. 359-378. (In Persian)
  28. Rahmati, E., khalesro, S. and Heidari, G. 2020. Improving quantitative and qualitative yield of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in intercropping with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). J. Agroecol. 11: 4. 1261-1273. (In Persian)
  29. Shokrani, F., Jalilian, J., Pirzad, A. and Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E. 2018. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation on yield's characteristics of dragon's head (Lallemantia iberica) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum) in monoculture and intercropping conditions. Ir. J. Dryland Agron. 6: 2. 209-228. (In Persian)
  30. Moradgholi, A., Mobasser, H., Ganjali, H., Fanai, H. and Mehraban, A. 2020. The effect of interaction of chemical and biological fertilizers in different moisture regimes on the morphophysiological and grain yield of wheat.  Stresses Crop Sci. 13: 3. 871-887. (In Persian)
  31. Baum, C., El, Tohamy, W. and Gruda, N. 2015. Increasing the productivity and product quality of vegetable crops using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review. Sci. Hortic. 187: 131-141.
  32. Asadi, S., Rezaei-chiyaneh, E. and Amirnia, R. 2019. Effect of planting pattern and fertilizer source on agronomic characteristics of linseed (Linum usitatissimum ) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in intercroppung under rainfed conditions. Ir. J. Crop. Sci. 21: 1. 16-30. (In Persian)
  33. Laranjeira, S., Fernandes-Silva, A., Reis, S., Torcato, C., Raimundo, F., Ferreira, L., Carnide, V. and Marques, G. 2021. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve chickpea performance under water deficit conditions. Appl. Soil Ecol. 164: 103927.
  34. Farhadian Asgarabadi, K. and Eisvand, H.R. Effects of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent on root morphological characteristics and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rain-fed conditions. J. Crop Prod. 10: 2. 61-73. (In Persian)
  35. Shabani Zenoozagh, V., Aliasgharzad, N., Majidi, J., Baradaran, B. and Aghebati-Maleki, L. 2019. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on co-symbiosis of Rhizobium and Rhizophagus irregularis in clover (Trifolium repens L). J. Agric. Sci. Sustain Prod. 29: 2. 19-38. (In Persian)
  36. Seyed sharifi, R. and seyed sharifi, R., 2020. Effects of starter nitrogen, methanol and bio fertilizers application on yield, nodulation and grain filling period of rainfed lentil.  Crops Improv. 22: 3. 445-460. (In Persian)
  37. Liu, Y., Yin, X., Xiao, J., Tang, L. and Zheng, Y. 2019. Interactive influences of intercropping by nitrogen on flavonoid exudation and nodulation in faba bean. Sci. Rep. 9: 1. 1-11.
  38. Nasiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Mondani, F., Amirmoradi, S.H. and Feizi, H. 2015. Determination of optimal strip width in strip intercropping of maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in northeast Iran. J. Clean. Prod. 106: 343-350. (In Persian)
  39. Berger, F. and Gutjahr, C. 2021. Factors affecting plant responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhiza. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 59: 101994.
  40. Abdel-Hafiz, M. and Hassan, A. 2019. Morph physiological traits of safflower as affected by plant densities and nitrogen fertilization. J. Prod. Dev. 24: 1. 1-14.‏
  41. Monti, M., Pellicano, A., Santonoceto, C., Preiti, G. and Pristeri, A. 2016. Yield components and nitrogen use in cereal-pea intercrops in mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res. 196: 379-388.
  42. Neugschwandtner, R. and Kaul, P.H. 2014. Sowing ratio and N fertilization affect yield and yield components ofoat and pea in intercrops. Field Crops Res. 155: 159-163.
  43. Davoodian, R. and Hamzei, J. 2019. Evaluation of advantage and yield quality in rapeseed (Brassica napus) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) intercropping under nitrogen fertilizer. J. Agric. Sci. Sustain. Prod. 29: 4. 19-36. (In Persian)
  44. Ali, A.B., Altayeb, O.A., Alhadi. M. and Shuang-En, Y. 2014. Effect of different levels nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on yield and chemical composition hybrid sunflower grown under irrigated condition. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 1: 7. 1-7.
  45. Sadati Valojai, S.T., Niknejad, Y., Fallah, H. and Barati Tari, D. 2020. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nano-fertilizers on growth and seed of two rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. J. Crop Ecophysiol. 1: 57. 37-56. (In Persian)
  46. Davies, M.J., Atkinson, C.J., Burns, C., Woolley, J.G., Hipps, N.A., Arroo, R.R., Dungey, N., Robinson, T., Brown, P. and Flockart, I. 2009. Enhancement of artemisinin concentration and yield in response to optimization of nitrogen and potassium supply to artemisia annua. Ann. Bot. 104: 2. 315-323.
  47. Li, Y., Ma, L., Wu, P., Zhao, X., Chen, X. and Gao, X. 2020. Yield, yield attributes and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum) / maize (Zea mays L.) strip intercropping. Field Crops Res. 248: 107656.
  48. Seyed Sharifi, R., Lotfollah, F. and Kamari, H. 2016. Evaluation of effects of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Psedomunas inoculation and spraying of nitrogen on fertilizer use efficiency and growth of Triticale. J. Soil Manag Sustain Prod. 5: 115-132. (In Persian)
  49. Raei, Y., Sayyadi Ahmadabad, M., Ghassemi-Golezani, K. and Ghassemi, S. 2020. The effect of biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers on pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black mustard (Brasassica nigra L.) intercropping. J. Agric. Sci. Sustain Prod. 30: 3. 21-40. (In Persian)
  50. Jiao, N., Wang, J., Ma, C., Zhang, C., Guo, D., Zhang, F. and Jensen, E.S. 2021. The importance of aboveground and belowground interspecific interactions in determining crop growth and advantages of peanut/maize intercropping. J. Crop. In Press, Corrected Proof.
  51. Liu, X., Rahman, T., Song, C., Su, B., Yang, F., Yong, T., Wu, Y., Zhang, C. and Yang, W. 2017. Changes in light environment, morphology, growth and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems. Field Crops Res. 200: 38-46.
  52. Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., Amirnia, R., Machiani, M.A., Javanmard, A., Maggi, F. and Morshedloo, M.R. 2020. Intercropping fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by PGPR inoculation: A strategy for improving yield, essential oil and fatty acid composition. Sci. Hortic. 261: 108951.‏
  53. Erman, M., Demir, S., Ocak, E., Tufenkçi, S., Oguz, F. and Akkopru, A. 2011. Effects of Rhizobium, arbuscular mycorrhiza and whey applications on some properties in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under irrigated and rainfed conditions 1-yield, yield components, nodulation and AMF colonization. Field Crops Res. 122: 1. 14-24.‏
  54. Chapagain, T. and Riseman, A. 2014. Barley-pea intercropping: Effects on land productivity, carbon and nitrogen transformations. Field Crops Res. 166: 18-25.
  55. Mahfouz, H. and Migawer, E.A. 2014. Effect of intercropping, weed control treatment and their interaction on yield and its attributes of chickpea and canola. Egypt. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 19: 4. 84-101.
  56. Zhou, T., Wang, L., Yang, H., Gao, Y., Liu, W. and Yang, W. 2019. Ameliorated light conditions increase the P uptake capability of soybean in a relay-strip intercropping system by altering root morphology and physiology in the areas with low solar radiation. Sci. Total Environ. 688: 1069-1080.‏
  57. Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Hooshmand, M. and Khorramdel, S. 2020. Effect of different arrangements of intercropping for sunflower (Helianthus annus), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) on yield and yield components. Ir. J. Field Crop Res. 18: 3. 251-266. (In Persian)
  58. Raei, Y., Shariati, J. and Weisany, W. 2015. Effect of biological fertilizers on seed oil, yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) at different irrigation levels. J. Agric. Sci Sustain. Prod. 25: 1. 65-84. (In Persian)
  59. Igiehon, N.O., Babalola, O.O., Cheseto, X. and Torto, B. 2021. Effects of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on yield, size distribution and fatty acid of soybean seeds grown under drought stress. Microbiol Res. 242: 126640.‏
  60. Rezaei Chiyaneh, E., Khorramdel, S., Movludi, A. and Rahimi, A. 2017. Effects of nano chelated zinc and mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on some agronomic and physiological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under drought stress conditions. Ir. J. Field Crop Res. 15: 1. 168-184.‏ (In Persian)
  61. Yilmaz, S., Ozel, A., Atak, M. and Erayman, M. 2015. Effects of seeding rates on competition indices of barley and vetch intercropping systems in the eastern mediterranean. Turk J. Agric For. 39: 135-143.
  62. Salahi, T., Yadavi, A., Salehi, A. and Balouchi, H. 2019. The effect of mycorrhiza biofertilizer on yield and yield components of linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in intercropping. J. Agric. Sci Sustain Prod. 29: 4. 1-17. (In Persian)
  63. Mirzashahi, K., Moayeri, M. and Nourgholipour, F. 2020. Yield of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cultivars in response to phosphorus application and its efficiency indices. Ir. J. Field Crop Res. 18: 4. 477-488. (In Persian)