بررسی اثر کود نانوبیومیک برعملکرد و برخی صفات چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa) در کشت مخلوط با لوبیا چشم بلبلی (Vigna unguiculata)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد در رشته اگرواکولوژی، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران،

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
امروزه روند رو به رشد تخریب منابع آب، خاک و محیط زیست در اثر کاربرد بی‌رویه مواد شیمیایی در کشاورزی و روش‌های رایج تولید محصولات غذایی، باعث توجه و ترغیب پژوهشگران کشاورزی به کشاورزی پایدار شده است. کشت مخلوط به جهت تنوع محصولات، مزایای آن و افزایش سود حاصل در واحد سطح و زمان از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثر هم‌افزایی کشت مخلوط چای ترش به عنوان یک گیاه دارویی و سازگار با شرایط منطقه با لوبیا چشم بلبلی و اثر کود نانوبیومیک در کشت مخلوط بود. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
مواد و روش:
برای بررسی تأثیر کاربرد کود نانوبیومیک بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی چای ترش در کشت مخلوط با لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، آزمایشی به‌‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل واقع در سایت جدید در سال زراعی 1395-1394 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل کود نانوبیومیک به‌عنوان عامل اصلی در دو سطح استفاده و عدم استفاده از کود و سطوح مختلف کشت مخلوط در پنج سطح شامل خالص چای ترش، خالص لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، 50 % چای ترش+50% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، 75 % چای ترش+25 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی و 25 % چای ترش+75 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. کود نانوبیومیک در سه مرحله (سه برگی، ساقه‫دهی و قبل از گلدهی) و در هر مرحله به میزان یک لیتر در هکتار مورد استفاده قرار گرفت.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
یافته‏ها:
مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل نشان داد که بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a از تیمار کاربرد نانوبیومیک در شرایط کشت مخلوط 75 % چای ترش+25 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی به دست آمد، همچنین بیشترین میزان کلروفیل کل در شرایط کشت مخلوط 75 % چای ترش+25 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی به دست آمد. نسبت برابری زمین در نظام‌های کشت مخلوط بالاتر از واحد بود که نشان‌دهنده مزیت کشت‌های مخلوط در مقایسه با کشت‌های خالص است. ترکیب 50 % چای‫ترش +50 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین را به خود اختصاص داد.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ بیشترین عملکرد اقتصادی چای ترش از تیمار کاربرد نانوبیومیک به دست آمد. مقایسه میانگین‏ اثر نظام‌های مختلف کشت مخلوط نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد اقتصادی (6/1125 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار کشت خالص چای ترش بدست آمد که باعملکرد اقتصادی(8/1117 کیلوگرم درهکتار) حاصل ازترکیب 50 % چای‫ترش +50 % لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی اختلاف معنی داری نداشت.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
نتیجه‏گیری:
بر اساس نتایج بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد اقتصادی چای ترش از تیمار کاربرد نانوبیومیک و در شرایط سیستم کاشت خالص چای ترش به دست آمد. به طور کلی می‫توان گفت کشت مخلوط 50 % چای‌ترش+50 % لوبیا چشم بلبلی با تولید عملکرد اقتصادی بیشتر برای کشت در منطقه مناسب است.‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the effect of Nanobiomic fertilizer on yield and some traits of Hibiscus sabdariffa in intercropping with Vigna unguiculata

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboubeh Sarani 1
  • Ahmad Ghanbari 2
  • Alireza Sirousmehr 3
1 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
2 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
3 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives:
Today, the growing trend of degradation of water, soil and environmental resources due to the indiscriminate use of chemicals in agriculture and common methods of food production, has attracted the attention and encouragement of agricultural researchers to sustainable agriculture. Mixed cultivation is of particular importance for the variety of crops, their benefits, and the increase in profits per unit area and time. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of sour tea mixed culture as a medicinal plant and compatible with the conditions of the region with cowpea and the effect of nanobiotic fertilizer in mixed culture.
Materials and Methods:
To investigate the effect of Nanobiomic fertilizer application on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sour tea in mixed cultivation with blueberry beans, an experiment in the form of split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in Zabol University research farm located in the new site. It was implemented in 2015-2016. Factors studied include nanobiomic biofertilizer as the main factor in two levels of use and non-use of biofertilizer and different levels of intercropping in five levels including pure Hibiscus sabdariffa, pure Vigna unguiculata, 50% Hibiscus sabdariffa + 50% Vigna unguiculata, 75% Hibiscus sabdariffa +25% of Vigna unguiculata and 25% of Hibiscus sabdariffa + 75% of Vigna unguiculata were a by-product. Nanobiomic biofertilizer was applied in three stages (three-leaf, stem and before flowering) and in each stage at the rate of one liter per hectare.
Results:
Comparison of the mean of interactions showed that the highest amount of chlorophyll a was obtained from nanobium application treatment in 75% Hibiscus sabdariffa + 25% Vigna unguiculata. Also, the highest total chlorophyll was obtained in 75% Hibiscus sabdariffa + 25% Vigna unguiculata. Vigna unguiculata was obtained. Land parity ratio in mixed cropping systems was higher than one, which indicates the advantage of mixed crops compared to pure crops. Intercropping of 50% Hibiscus sabdariffa + 50% Vigna unguiculata had the highest land parity ratio. The highest economic yield of Hibiscus sabdariffa was obtained from nanobiomic application treatment. Comparison of the means of effect of different intercropping systems showed that the highest amount of economic yield (11125.6 kg / ha) was obtained from the pure culture of Hibiscus sabdariffa.
Conclusion:
Based on the results, the highest biological yield and economic yield of sour tea were obtained from the application of nanobiomics in the conditions of pure planting system of sour tea. In general, it can be said that a mixed culture of 50% sour tea + 50% cowpea with suitable economic yield is suitable for cultivation in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • Economic yield
  • chlorophyll
  • Polyphenol oxidase
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
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