عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives:
Due to the increasing population and food shortage, increasing agricultural production is becoming more important, increasing the area under cultivation and increasing yield per unit area are two ways to increase agricultural production. Mixed cultivation is a low-income agricultural method that aims to make optimal use of land, light and water to produce a desirable level of crops.
Materials and methods:
In order to investigate the effect of intercropping and different densities of quinoa and guar cultivation in the climatic conditions of Mashhad in May 2019 in the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University located in Golbahar. This factorial study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors tested included (Q: pure culture of quinoa, G: pure culture of guar and quinoa + guar in 1: 1, 1: 2 and 2: 1 row ratio) and plant density (D1: 10 plants, D2: 15 and D3: 20 plants per square meter). Plant density was adjusted by changing the distance between plants on the row. Row spacing treatments included: 20 cm equivalent to 10 plants per square meter, 15 cm, equivalent to 15 plants per square meter and 10 cm, equivalent to 20 plants per square meter.
The results showed that the main and interaction effects of intercropping ratios and plant density on quinoa and guava seed yield and different indices of intercropping usefulness (land parity ratio (LER), actual reduction yield of guava (AYLG) and quinoa (AYLQ) Quinoa (RCCQ) and Guar (RCCG), Income Equality Ratio (IER) and Mixed Cultivation Profitability (IA) were significant at the level of 1% probability and the values for the mentioned traits were obtained. 1.21, 0.08, 0.83, 2.99, 1.17, 1.80 and 0.42. respectively
So that the highest yield of quinoa and guar seeds with 1480 and 2655 g/m2, respectively, of quinoa and guar mixed cultivation treatments with ratios of 2 rows of quinoa and 1 row of guar at a density of 10 plants per square meter and for guar from culture treatment, respectively. Pure guar was obtained from the same plant density. The lowest yields of quinoa and guar seeds with an average of 115 and 269 g / m2 were obtained from the density of 20 plants per square meter and the ratio of mixed cultivation of two rows of quinoa and 1 guar gum, which is due to intra-species competition due to Increase plant density.
The highest amount of quinoa LER and total was related to the treatment of two rows of quinoa and one row of guar gum at a density of 15 plants per square meter. For Guar gum, the LER level in all studied treatments was less than one. The total LER in 2G: 1Q treatment was less than one in all three densities, which indicates that increasing the share of guar in the composition, led to a decrease in total LER. This may be due to the very low yield of guar gum in 2G: 1Q treatment. In the other treatments studied, the LER level was higher than one, which indicates the usefulness of intercropping compared to pure culture. According to the results, the planting density of 10 plants per square meter was the best planting density and the ratio of mixed cultivation of 2 quinoa drives and a row of guar was the best treatment in this study, which can be recommended to farmers.