عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Crataegus genus has a wide distribution in Iran. This genus belongs to Rosaceae family, is a horticultural plant and has medicinal properties. Hawthorn, with a great variety in species and medicinal properties, has a wide field of usage in traditional medicine. This plant has flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids and high antioxidant activity and is used for treating cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, anxiety decrease and sleep disorders. Fruits, leaves and flowers of hawthorn have secondary chemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, oligomeric procyanidins and triterpene acids, organic acids, estrols and a few amines that activate heart movements. The presence of antioxidants in hawthorn causes beneficial therapeutic effects. Foods and fruits that include antioxidant compounds, are useful for human health, because their antioxidants neutralize the negative effects of free radicals in the human body. Regarding the fact that no study has ever been conducted on the existing species of hawthorn in Gyan region, the aim of this study has been the recognition of the species diversity and phytochemical compounds of hawthorn and could open up a new window for further studies on this plant.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a completely randomized design with 3 replications in 2018 in natural forests of Gyan region in Nahavand city, located in Hamedan province which is one of the habitats of hawthorn plant. The samples were collected from three regions of Gyan forests in different altitudes. Measured traits were total phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in methanolic extract of hawthorn flowering shoot and fruit.
Results: The investigation showed that the existing species in Gyan region is Crataegus pseudo heterophylla A. Pojark. According to the results of this research, the highest amount of total phenol (225.95±12.97 mg GAE/gr) and flavonoid (464.52±7.55 mg routine/gr) in methanolic extract of flowering shoot, were observed in region 3 with the highest altitude. Also, the highest total phenol (76.91±4.98 mg GAE/gr), the highest flavonoid (161.05±5.36 mg routine /gr) and the most antioxidant activity (110.01±0.12 ppm) of hawthorn fruit were observed in region 3.
Conclusion: The reason for the highest total phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in region 3 can be attributed to the higher content of macronutrients in the soil and high altitude above sea level. Producing secondary metabolites in plants increase under environmental stresses. For this reason, the plants grown at high altitudes than the plants grown at a lower altitude, are subjected to severe stresses such as drought, sun light and UV rays and their active substances increase.