اثر محلول پاشی عصاره مرزنجوش (Origanum vulgare) و آویشن کوهی (Thymus vulgaris) بر برخی شاخص‌های رشدی و کیفی گیاه کنجد در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شاهرود

2 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

چکیده

کم‌آبی سبب طیف وسیعی از واکنش‌های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی در گیاهان می‌شود و یکی از سازوکارهای کارآمدی که گیاه به هنگام روبرو شدن با کم‌آبی، برای حفظ آماس سلولی به‌کار می‌گیرد، تنظیم اسمزی است. امروزه شیوه محلول‌پاشی برگی به‌عنوان مکمل روش‌های خاکی شیوه‌ای مؤثر در مقابله با تنش‌های محیطی می‌باشد، از آنجایی‌که عصاره مرزنجوش و آویشن کوهی دارای ترکیبات ضد اکسیدانی می‌باشند به‌نظر می‌رسد این ترکیبات جهت کاهش شدت تنش مفید باشند، از این‌رو این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی اثر محلول‌پاشی عصاره مرزنجوش و آویشن‌کوهی بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی کنجد رقم ناز تحت شرایط تنش کم آبی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گرگان به اجرا در آمد.
این آزمایش طی دو سال به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل 2 رژیم مختلف آبیاری؛ هر 15 روز یک‌بار و هر 25 روز یک‌بار، 3 سطح محلول‌پاشی مرزنجوش صفر، 40 و 60 درصد حجمی و 3 سطح محلول‌پاشی آویشن‌کوهی صفر، 10 و 20 درصد حجمی بود. سطوح رژیم آبیاری به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سطوح مرزنجوش و آویشن‌کوهی به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. در نهایت تمامی داده‌ها با استفاده از SAS 9.2 آنالیز شدند.
با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده مشخص گردید که تنش کم‌آبی به‌طور معنی‌داری سبب کاهش صفات مورفولوژیک اندازه‌گیری شده از قبیل شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، وزن خشک میوه، ارتفاع بوته، میزان کلروفیل a، میزان کلروفیل b شد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم آبی سبب افزایش میزان کاروتنوئید، میزان فلاونوئید، کلسیم و پتاسیم شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان شاخص سطح برگ (76/3 و 93/2)، وزن خشک برگ (88/57 گرم در متر مربع)، ارتفاع بوته (159 سانتیمتر)، کلروفیل a (7/21 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر) و کلروفیل b (61/20 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر) مربوط به شرایط آبیاری مناسب و تیمار 60 درصد مرزنجوش و 20 درصد آویشن‌کوهی بود. بیشترین میزان کاروتنوئید (58/18 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر)، فلاونوئید (003/0 میلی‌گرم بر گرم وزن تر)، کلسیم (57/0 درصد) و پتاسیم (97/2 درصد)مربوط به شرایط کم آبیاری و تیمار 60 درصد مرزنجوش و 20 درصد آویشن‌کوهی بود. به‌طورکلی نتایح نشان داد که با افزایش میزان مصرف عصاره مرزنجوش و آویشن کوهی شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده تحت هر دو شرایط تنش کم آبی و عدم تنش افزایش یافت. بیشترین اثر بر میزان شاخص‌های اندازه‌گیری شده تحت هر دو شرایط تنش کم آبی و عدم تنش مربوط به تیمار محلول پاشی 60 درصد حجمی عصاره مرزنجوش و 20 درصد حجمی عصاره آویشن کوهی بود، ولی در برخی از صفات با تیمار محلول پاشی 60 درصد حجمی عصاره مرزنجوش و 10 درصد حجمی عصاره آویشن کوهی و محلول پاشی 40 درصد حجمی عصاره مرزنجوش و 20 درصد حجمی عصاره آویشن کوهی اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. استفاده از عصاره گیاهی در هر دو شرایط آبیاری اثر گذار بود ولی اثرگذاری آن در شرایط تنش بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract spraying on some of growth and quality characteristics of sesame under irrigation levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Ansar 1
  • Mehdi Baradaran Firouzabadi 2
  • Serolah Galeshi 3
  • Ahmad Gholami 4
  • Mahdieh Parsaian 2
1 university of Shahrood
2 Associate Professor Shahrood University of Technology
3 Professor of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
4 Assistant Professor Shahrood University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Limited irrigation leads to a wide spectrum of physiological and biochemical responses in plants, and one of the efficient plant mechanisms against water deficit for maintenance of cell turgidity is osmotic regulation. Nowadays, leaf spraying as complement to soil methods is effective against environmental stress. Since Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract contain anti-oxidant compounds, it seems that these compounds may prove useful for reduction of stress intensity. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the effect of spraying of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract on some of growth and physiological traits of Sesamum indicum L. (Naz cultivar) under different irrigation levels.
Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted as split plot factorial in two years (at 2015 and 2016) as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Gorgan University of Agriculture. In this study, treatments included two different irrigation regimes include normal condition (every 15 days) and drought stress (every 25 days), three levels of Origanum vulgare extract include 0, 40 and 60 % and three levels of Thymus vulgaris extract include 0, 10 and 20 %. Irrigation regime levels were considered as the main factor and the levels of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract were assigned to sub plots. The first spraying application took place one month after planting and second and third placement at 12 days intervals.
Results and Discussion: Results indicated that limited irrigation significantly reduced the measured indices of leaf area index, length plant, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, stem dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b. The results also showed that limited irrigation increased content of flavonoid, carotenoid, Ca and K. The results of this study showed that using Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract significantly improved the measured indices. Results indicated that the highest leaf area index (3.76 and 2.93), leaf dry weight (57.88 gr/m2), length plant (159 cm), chlorophyll a (21.7 mg g-1Fw) and chlorophyll b (20.61 mg g-1Fw) were attending in control conditions were associated with 60% Origanum vulgare and 20% Thymus vulgaris L. extract. The highest carotenoid (18.58 mg g-1Fw), flavonoid (0.003 mg g-1Fw), Ca (0.57 mg g-1Fw) and K (2.97 mg g-1Fw) were attending in limited irrigation conditions were associated with 60% Origanum vulgare and 20% Thymus vulgaris L. extract. It was found that the most measured indices in both control and also limited irrigation conditions were associated with 60 % Origanum vulgare and 20 % Thymus vulgaris essence. Application of plant extract (Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essence) was effective in both irrigation conditions (normal conditions and limited irrigation), but its effect was more pronounced under stress condition (every 25 days).
Conclusion: Therefore, it can be stated that under dry conditions, the use of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract can induce tolerance in the plant in response to water deficit conditions. Since less cost is needed compared to other methods, therefore, in areas with low water conditions, it is recommended to use the Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris extract.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Calcium
  • chlorophyll
  • limited irrigation
  • Plant extract
  • potassium
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