تأثیر غلظت‌های مختلف کاربرد برگی هیومیک اسید در مراحل نموی بر ویژگی‌های ریخت شناسی و عملکرد تریتیکاله

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته اگرواکولوژی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، خوزستان، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

3 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهیی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان ملاثانی اهواز خوزستان

4 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: امروزه تریتیکاله به عنوان یک غله تجاری با پتانسیل بالا برای تغذیه انسان و دام مطرح است. با توجه به این که تریتیکاله تحمل خوبی نسبت به وضعیت نامناسب محیطی نشان میدهد، جایگزین خوبی برای گندم نان در وضعیت محیطی نامناسب و کمبازده است.کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی در کشت وکار غلات باعث تخریب بوم سامانه‌های زراعی و ایجادآلودگی‌های زیست محیطی می‌شود. یکی از رویکرد‌های رفع این مشکل استفاده از اصول کشاورزی پایدار در این بوم نظام‌ها است. از جمله این راهکارها می‌توان به استفاده از کودهای آلی نظیر اسید هیومیک اشاره کرد. یکی از عوامل مهم در اثربخشی بیشتر کود، کاربرد غلظت و زمان مناسب مصرف آن است. از اینرو تعیین مناسب‌ترین غلظت و زمان کاربرد برگی اسید هیومیک در کشت و کار تریتیکاله دارای اهمیت می‌باشد. این آزمایش با هدف تعیین بهترین غلظت و زمان محلول‌پاشی اسید هیومیک برای افزایش عملکرد کمی و کیفی تریتیکاله در شرایط آب و هوایی خوزستان انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها:آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان در سال زراعی 97-1396 اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل زمان محلول‌پاشی در چهار سطح به عنوان عامل اصلی (پنجهزنی، ساقه رفتن، ظهور برگ پرچم، گرده افشانی) و غلظت در چهارسطح به عنوان عامل فرعی (صفر، 200، 400 و 600 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) بود.صفات مورد ارزیابی در این آزمایش شامل خصوصیات ظاهری، عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد، درصد پروتئین دانه و عملکرد پروتئین بود.
یافته‌ها: اثر زمان محلول‌پاشی بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در سنبله و عملکرد زیستتوده معنی‌دار شد و بیشترین ارتفاع بوته بامیانگین 3/124 سانتی‌متراز کاربرد اسید هیومیک درمرحله ساقه رفتن و بیشترین عملکرد زیستی) 3/17438 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در مرحله برگ پرچم با تفاوت معنی‌دار با شاهد به‌دست آمد. اثر غلظت بر تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد زیستی معنی‌دار بود. همچنین اثر متقابل زمان و غلظت محلول‌پاشی بر طول پدانکل، طول سنبله، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت معنی‌دار گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (6796کیلوگرم در هکتار) از محلول‌پاشی 200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر اسید هیومیک در مرحله ظهور برگ پرچم به‌دست آمد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نقش مثبت اسید هیومیک در بهبود رشد و عملکرد این گیاه در پژوهش حاضر و نیز هزینه کم کاربرد آن در سطح وسیع، محلول‌پاشی آن در زراعت تریتیکاله توصیه می‌شود. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، برای بدست آوردن بیشترین عملکرد دانه در زراعت تریتیکاله کاربرد برگی 200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر اسید هیومیک در مرحله برگ پرچم پیشنهاد ‌می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different concentration of humic acid foliar application in development stages on morphological characteristics and yield of Triticale

نویسندگان [English]

  • laleh parvin 1
  • mohammad hossein gharineh 2
  • aydin khodaei joghan 3
  • ali moshatati 4
1 -
2 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Khuzestan
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. Faculty of Agriculture , Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of khouzestan
4 Plant Production Genetics and Plant Genetics, University of Agricultural Sciences and Resources khouzestan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Nowadays, triticale is considered as a high potential commercial crop in order to feed human and livestock. Regarding the fact that triticale is tolerant to inappropriate environmental conditions, it is an acceptable alternative for common wheat cultivation in inappropriate and low-fertile environments. Application of chemical fertilizers in cereal cultivation can lead to destruction of agro-ecosystems and cause environmental pollution.One of approach to solve this problem is use of sustainable agriculture principles in agroecosystems. One of these strategies is application of organic fertilizers such as humicacid. One of the important factors in the effectiveness of fertilizer is the application of concentration and time of consumption.Therefore, determination of the most suitable concentration and time of application of Humic Acid leaves in triticale is important. This experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the best concentration and time of foliar application of humic acids in order to increase the quantitative and qualitative yield of triticale in Khuzestan.
Materials and methods: The experiment was conducted at Research field of Agricultural sciences and Natural Resources University of khuzestan during 2017-2018. Experimental design was a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications.Treatments included time of spraying at four levels as main plot (tillering, Stemelongation, flag leaf, pollination) and concentration at four levels as sub plots (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg.lit-1). Traits included morphological characteristics, grain yield, yield components and qualitative characteristics were assessed in this experiment.
Results: Results showed that the effect of spraying timewere significant on plant height, number of grain per spike and biological yield.The highest plant height (124.3 cm) was obtained from application of humic acid in stem elongation development stage and the highest biological yield (17438.33 kg.ha-1) wasgained from spraying of humic acid at flag leaf stage. Also, the interaction of time and concentrationwere significant on peduncle length, spike length, grain yield and harvest index. Highest grain yield (6796 kg.ha-1) was obtained from200 mg.lit-1 of Humic Acid application in flag leaf stage.
Conclusion: According to the results of this experiment, foliar application of 200 mg.lit-1 humic acid in the flag leaf stage is recommended to gain maximum grain yield in triticale cultivation.
Materials and methods: the experiment was conducted at Research field of Agricultural sciences and Natural Resources University of khuzestan during 2017-2018. Experimental design was a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included time of spraying at four levels as main plot (tillering, Stem elongation, flag leaf, pollination) and concentration at four levels as sub plots (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg.lit-1). Traits included morphological characteristics, grain yield, yield components and qualitative characteristics were assessed in this experiment.
Results: Results showed that the effect of spraying time were significant on plant height, number of grain per spike and biological yield. The highest plant height (124/3 cm) was obtained from application of humic acid in stem elongation development stage and the highest biological yield (17438.33 kg.ha-1) was gained from spraying of humic acid at flag leaf stage. Also, the interaction of time and concentration were significant on peduncle length, spike length, grain yield and harvest index. Highest grain yield (6796 kg.ha-1) was obtained from 200 mg.lit-1 of Humic Acid application in flag leaf stage.
Conclusion: Eventually, the findings of this study showed that application of organic fertilizer such as humic acid in triticale cultivation not only improve grain yield and crop quality but also reduces consumption of chemical fertilizers in agroecosystems. According to the results of this experiment, the use of 200 mg.lit-1 of humic acid in the flag leaf stage in triticale crops is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cereals
  • Organic fertilizer
  • foliar application
  • Grain yield
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