عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Sugar beet seed plants about five to six weeks after the formation of a seed stem, flowering started and within two weeks, this stage of plant growth will be completed. A significant negative correlation between the temperature received from flowering to seed maturity and the plant reproductive growth period with grain yield shows that the long plant reproductive growth period, will lead to a decrease in seed yield. With the postponement of phonological stages of sugar beet seed plants the possibility of synchronization of plant reproductive stage, with unfavorable conditions increases which leads to loss of yield. To increase the yield, it is necessary to do research on issues such as seed breeding and farm management reform in the production of sugar beet seed according to variety to be done. In this regard, little research has been done in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of phonological stages and morphological characteristics and its impact on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hybrids monogerm sugar beet seeds were.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station (Alarough) in two years (2011-2012 and based on a Completely Randomized Block Design. The experimental treatments were five promising diploid cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (7112×SB36, SB37×28874, 7112×436, 419×SB36 and 261×231) of sugar beet. Each plot consists of eight lines planting and hybrid varieties were sown in strips in female: male ratio was 6: 2. Phonological characteristics, including the emergence, bolting and flowering components, during daily visit were recorded at the time specified. For the evaluation of plant morphological characteristics, before harvest, five plants of each plot were randomly selected and evaluated in the laboratory.
Results: The results indicated that there were significantly differences among CMS lines in respect to phonological and morphological characteristics and quantity and quality of seed. The maximum number of main branch and auxiliary branch, and plant dry weight was obtained in 7112×SB36 and SB37×28874. But, for line of 261×231, number of main branch and auxiliary branch and plant dry weight was lower than other lines, and the highest crude seed yield was observed in the 7112×SB36 and SB37×28874 and the lowest of crude seed yield was observed in 261×231. These data indicate that there is a positive correlation between phonological and morphological characteristics with the quantity and quality and negative correlation between plant heights with seed yield
Conclusion: Considering that there is a positive correlation between phonological and morphological characteristics with the quantity and quality and negative correlation between plant heights with seed yield. Therefore, the sugar beet institutions must, prior to the introduction of CMS lines, assess the CMS lines on the morphological characteristics and do advise in the fields planting density and pruning plant announced. While in Iran (Ardabil), for the production of sugar beet seed, planting operations often regardless of the morphological characteristics of crop varieties, with a density of 50 × 70 doing and plant density and topping of seed plants on seed production in Iran has never been considered.