عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives:
Quinoa is a plant from the Amaranths family, C3 and native to South America. This plant has been considered due to its high nutritional value and tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. This plant is grown in Peru with a rainfall of 300-500 mm and a minimum temperature of -4 °C in rainfed area (28). Quinoa can withstand temperatures of -4 °C in the 8-12 leaf stage and recover after cold damage (14). In order to increasing crop diversity of rainfed area of Golestan province with cool winter type (10), a preliminary evaluation of the seed yield and yield component of quinoa lines was carried out in Goragan.
Materials and methods:
In order to compare seed yield of 11 quinoa lines (NSRCQ 1- NSRCQ 2- NSRCQ 5- NSRCQ 6- NSRCQ 7- NSRCQ 8- NSRCQ 9- NSRCQ 10- NSRCQ 12- NSRCQ 13- NSRCQ 14), Originating from Peru and Bolivia and selected in National Salinity Research Center with different maturity time, cultivated in a randomized complete block design with three replications on 29 November, in 2015-2016 at Iraqi Mahaleh Research Station, Gorgan, Iran. During the season, weed management was carried out by hand two times and aphid controlled by pesticide. At harvest, after removing border plants harvested and seed yield, thousents kernel weigth (TKW) and germination percent of produced seeds were measured. Lateral panicule number, plant height, panicule weight and biomass of 10 selected plants were measured. For evaluation of freezing risk and rainfall rate 65 years weather data (1952-2017) of gorgan station was evaluated. Data were analyzed by SAS v.9.1 software. The cluster analysis and analysis of the main components were performed using Statgraphic software.
The results showed that yield in autumn cultivation in Gorgan was between 1.5 to 4 t ha-1 and TKW of genotypes was between 1.2 and 4.7 g. Investigation of correlation between traits showed that genotypes with shorter days to flowering had lower TKW and plant height. Line 1 was the earliest with the least height and grain yield. The principal component analysis also showed that the two components had the highest contribution in determining the seed yield, and the percentage of germination, the number of panicles, thousand seed weight in positive direction and day to maturity in the negative and in the second component of biomass had the highest impact. The results of cluster analysis also showed that lines NSRCQ11, NSRCQ10, NSRCQ9, NSRCQ7 and NSRCQ6 had high seed yield, TKW, seed germination percentage and biomass. Among the top lines, line 4 with a seed yield of 3.5 t ha-1, 3.9 g TKW, 100% seed germination and a lack of cold damage was promising. The risk of frost based on the past 65 years weather data of the Gorgan station is 24.6%.
Quinoa was exposed to frost in autumn cultivation in Gorgan province, but it was recovered. Selection of appropriate genotype in Gorgan province could be based on frost tolerance at temperatures below -4 ° C, day to flowering, TKW and seed yield. Quinoa cultivation in autumn cropping in rainfed condition in the province with a potential yield of 3.5-4 t ha-1 with high seed size is possible.