عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives: Intercropping is the planting of more than one plant in one land and growing season so that the plants should be the highest intimacy together in most growing season. It may be have the different planting and harvest time. Biodiversity in agricultural system caused to modifying the pest and diseases populations, also, it could be improved nutrient cycle and soil conservation via activation of soil microorganisms that caused to increasing in Soil stability, soil erosion control and increasing in carbon sequestration. The intercropping of a cereal with a legume is a preferred system for achieving increased food supply and reduced environmental feedback. So that, one of the way to achieving to sustainability in agriculture is multiple and intercropping system. The goals of recent study is the effect of barley-hairy vetch intercropping in LER and dry matter quality and production.
Material and Methods
In order to study the competition ability of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) intercropping planting ratio under phosphorus fertilizer on narrow and broad leaf weed dry matter and density a field experiment was conducted in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz at 2016-2017 growing season. Experimental design was randomized complete block as a factorial arrangement with three replications. The first factor was 8 planting patterns includes barley sole cropping, hairy vetch sole cropping, hairy vetch-barley intercropping ratios includes 50:50, 25:75, 75:25, as replacement series, 100% barley+10%, 20% and 30% hairy vetch as additive series and mixed intercropping. The second factor was two phosphorus fertilizer application includes 150 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer and 75 kg/ha triple superphosphate+ biological fertilizer (Barwar2).
Grain yield was determined by harvesting a 2 m2 area from each plot. The measured traits includes: crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate(WSC), ash percent, dry matter digestible(DMD), acid detergent fiber(ADF), Neutral detergent fiber(NDF), Intercropping dry matter yield, barley relative yield, fenugreek relative yield, and land equivalent ratio(LER). The plant density for barley and hairy vetch were 375 and 250 plant/m2 respectively. The harvest operation achieved at April in barley dough stage.
Results and Discussions
The results of showed the highest total dry matter (1074 gr/m2) and LER (1.2) was obtained at 100%barley+30% hairy vetch additive method. The highest crude protein, dry mater digestible (DMD) and ash percent were observed at hairy vetch sole cropping treatment. The highest water soluble carbohydrate, NDF and fiber were found at 100%barley+30% hairy vetch additive method. Biological phosphorus fertilizer+ 75 kg/ha P had the highest CP, DMD, ASH and NDF. But in WSC, CF and ADF, chemical fertilizer was the best treatment.
The results showed that with increasing in hairy vetch ratio in intercropping, the crude protein was increased. The barley sole cropping had the lowest crude protein. The comparison of different planting pattern showed that with increasing in barley ratio and decreasing in hairy vetch ratio, WSC, NDF, ADF and CF was increased. Also with increasing in hairy vetch ratio, DMD, ASH and CP was increased. Totally the results revealed that the hairy vetch in intercropping caused to increase in total forage yield and quality.