عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The use of nano-fertilizers as an effective approach to increase the availability of nutrients for plants has been highly regarded. With using Nano-fertilizers, time and rate of release plant nutrients will be according to plant nutrition needs, so the plant can absorb the maximum amount of nutrients and thus the leaching of nutrients decreases and crop yield increases. The present research aimed to study the growth responses of chickpea during different growth and development stages under nano-molybdenum and calcium fertilizers treatments
Materials & Methods
In order to investigate nano-molybdenum and calcium fertilizers on growth parameters, nodulation and amount of calcium and molybdenum of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on completely randomized design in green house of Payame Noor University of Mashhad in 2013. Experiment treatments included three levels of molybdenum (0, 2 and 4 ppm) and four levels of calcium (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg per hectare) that were prepared as nano oxides absorbed by plant. Studied traits were plant height, root length, leaf area, and root and shoot dry weight, the number and size of biological nitrogen-fixing nodules and amount of calcium and molybdenum in plant.
Results & Discussion
The results indicated that the effect of different levels of calcium on plant height, size of biological nitrogen-fixing nodules and amount of calcium and molybdenum in plant were significant, statistically. Growth parameters of chickpea at different levels of calcium were significantly increased compared to control. The highest plant height plant height was observed in treatment of 100 kg per hectare calcium. The highest shoot dry weight (0.6 g. per plant), leaf area (14 cm2 per plant) and size of biological nitrogen fixing nodules (27 nodules per plant) were observed in treatment of 300 kg per hectare calcium. The lowest rates of these parameters were obtained in the control. The effect of calcium treatment on the size of the nodule was not significant. Different levels of molybdenum nano-oxide only affected leaf area and plant calcium content, significantly. Nano-molybdenum levels had reduction effect on leaf area compared to the control, so that the highest and lowest leaf area were observed in the control of leaf area was 4 ppm molybdenum, respectively. Calcium absorption in the concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm molybdenum increased compared to the control, significantly. The interaction effect molybdenum and calcium only affected amount of calcium and molybdenum of chickpea, significantly. With increasing molybdenum in the absence of calcium, amount of plant calcium increased, but with increasing molybdenum in the higher levels of calcium, this trend of calcium variation was n’t observed. The highest amount of calcium was observed in combined treatment of 4 ppm molybdenum and 0 kg per hectare calcium. With increasing molybdenum nano oxide in the higher levels of calcium (200 and 300 kg per hectare), the amount of molybdenum in the plant increased. The highest amount of this parameter belonged to combined treatment of 4 ppm molybdenum and 300 kg per hectare calcium that was not different with 0 and 2 ppm molybdenum under condition of 300 kg per hectare calcium, significantly. changes in pH, affects the availability of nutrients so that the absorption of some elements such as molybdenum can be facilitated.
In general, the results showed that combined use of nano-calcium and molybdenum fertilizers can have a significant effect on growth characteristics chickpea. This suggests that nanotechnology has a high potential for achieving sustainable agriculture by increasing nutrient absorption and use efficiency. Nanotechnology also reduces environmental pollution and thus improve agricultural production and food security.