عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Considering environmental issues of herbicide applications, using of integrated weed management could reduce the amount of herbicide usage accompanied with keeping their efficacy. Farmers are always faces the weed contamination and the number of weeding labor, tillage and the amount of herbicide application shows how important they are (Eue, 1986). However introducing the new herbicides are an important progress in agriculture (Pike and et. Al.) but crop damaging and concerns about herbicides carry over to non-target areas, weed herbicide resistance, environmental consequences issues and human health, are the reasons to revise the chemical weed management (Blachshaw, 2006). A long successful weed management needs to change the simple weed control to the system which reduce weed germination and reproduction and decrease the ability of competitiveness of weed with the crop. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the possibility of clodinafop application reducing in combine with different wheat densities to control Avena loduviciana L.
Matterials and methods: a field experiment was conducted at Hossein Abad Malek village located at 25 kilometer at east of Gorgan city. Field preparations were tillage and two vertical disc and making plots. Plots were two meter width and five meter length. A factorial filed experiment based on randomized complete block design was carried out. Treatments were recommended and 150 % of recommended density of wheat and four clodinafop doses including 0, 60, 80 and 100 % of recommended dose which every dose applied by two different application like split and single application approach. Fresh and dry weight of weeds were sampled after one month and wheat yield was obtained from three m2.
Results: Results showed that split application of clodinafop shows more control efficacy percent of Avena ludoviciana compared with single application. Increasing the density of wheat up to 150 % of recommended density increased the efficacy control of single application whereas at split application without any increasing in the density of wheat always shows more efficacies in comparison with single application. There was no significant difference between wheat yield at split application of 80 and 100 % recommended dose of clodinafop at both density of wheat. Also with increasing clodinafop control efficiency, wheat yield was increased as well, and this yield increasing had straight relation with both simple and split application weed control efficiency.
Conclusion: Split application approach cause increasing weed control efficacy and reducing herbicide usage up to 20 %.
Keywords: Herbicide efficacy, integrated weed management, split application, single application