عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Review and goals: The ajowan(Carum copticum) is a medicinal plants from Apiaceae family that seeds contains 2-4% of volatile oil. 9-17 of chemical composition of ajowan essential oil have been reported(2), it have antibacterial and antioxidant activity of it caused to preserve the food materials(1). The application of chemical fertilizer leads to environmental pollution and ecological disaster (13). The proper approach to solve these problems is the use of sustainable agriculture fundamentals in agro ecosystems, that biological fertilizer such as vermicompost and Alkazotplus and Humic acid could be effective for these issues.In order to mentioned issues, the goal of this research was the examination of the effects of different fertilizer resources on essential oil of ajowan and soil properties in Ahvaz condition.
Material and Methods: a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Shahid Chamran University in 2014-2015. Experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) as a factorial arrangement with three replications.Nitrogen sources at the four levels (control (no nitrogen source), 150 kg/ha urea (U), 75 kg/ha sulfur-coated urea (SCU), half of Sulfur-coated urea (1/2 SCU) + Alkazot Plus biological fertilizer) were first factor, and the second factor were organic fertilizers at 4 levels (control (no organic sources), humic acid, 5 tons/ha vermicompost, half of vermicompost + humic acid). The measurement traits were essential oil percent and yield, soil organic matter percent, total nitrogen percent and soil phosphorus and potassium. After ripening the plants harvested at May 2015. The seeds were planted with 4 kg/ha seed density, the 30 cm distance between rows and 5cm far from distance in rows). The Ajowan seeds collected and its essential oil extracted with Clevenger apparatus and water distillation with water vapour methods.
Results: The results showed that the interaction between different sources of nitrogen and organic fertilizers on ajowan essential oil percent and yield was significant at 1%. The highest essential oil percent) 5.5%( and performance )85.4 kg/ha (were obtained at control (without nitrogen source( , vermicompost and urea (U) with vermicompost , respectively. The highest organic matter percentage)1.45%( , soil nitrogen percent) 0.06%( , the percent of soil potash ) 226.3 mg/kg( and soil phosphorus ) 22.38 mg/kg ( were obtained at urea (U) with control (without organic fertilizer) treatments , urea (U) with vermicompost , half of urea -coated Sulfur + Alkazot Plus with vermicompost and urea (U) with vermicompost, respectively.Conclusion: Integrate use of chemical and biological fertilizers, in addition to the positive environmental effects, had positive effects in increasing the characterization essential oil that can be economically effective and also by improving the characteristics of the soil, it could be attain sustainable agriculture )Permaculture(.