The effect of fertilizer manure, local compost and phosphorus consumption on some growth and yield characteristics of wheat

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Master's student in Agrotechnology, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University, Iran..

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Genetics and Production Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University, Iran.


Background and objectives
Wheat is one of the most widely used crops in Iran and the world, which provides about 60 to 70% of human food energy. In sustainable soil management, in addition to soil fertility, it is also important to maintain the balance of its nutrients. In general, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers is necessary to maintain yield and maintain the beneficial properties of the soil, as well as to contribute to the sustainable production of wheat as a strategic product of the country. For this purpose, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of combined use of organic fertilizers and phosphorus on wheat properties and the purpose of reducing the use of chemical fertilizers in order to maintain yield and maintain useful soil properties and ultimately protect the environment.

Materials and methods
This experiment was carried out in a field located in Sarbisheh city in 2020 year using Arg wheat cultivar as a split plot and based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. In this study, the application of organic fertilizer at 5 levels in the main plots before planting and the use of phosphorus based on soil test at 4 levels in the sub-plots was done simultaneously with planting with a tiller. In this experiment, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant dry weight, number of tillers, number of spikes per plant, grain yield and protein percentage were measured.

The highest plant height was related to the level of non-application of phosphorus fertilizer and the level of 20 tons per hectare of local compost with a 32.8% increase compared to the control level. It was observed that in the interaction of organic fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer, the highest leaf area of wheat was related to the level of 20 tons of local compost fertilizer combined with 100% phosphorus fertilizer. It was found that the highest plant dry weight was 20 tons per hectare of local compost, which caused a 50% increase in this trait compared to the control. Also, in the treatment of phosphorus fertilizer, it was found that the highest amount of plant dry weight at the level of 100% of the recommended amount was 4.48 g, which was 34.5% higher than the control level. The interaction of the two factors tested showed that the highest number of tillers was related to the level of 150 kg of phosphorus fertilizer and the level of 20 tons per hectare of local compost, which caused an increase of 1.3 times compared to the control level. The level of 25 tons of manure per hectare increased the number of spikes per plant by 13.7% compared to the control. Also, the level of 20 tons of local compost increased this trait by 15.6% compared to the control. The simple effect of phosphorus fertilizer was observed that the levels of 150 and 100 kg / ha had the highest number of spikes. Phosphorus fertilizer treatment showed that the highest grain yield at the level of 150 kg / ha was 6117 kg / ha, which was an increase of 39.6% compared to the control level.
The results of this study showed that the effect of different fertilizers on most of the studied traits such as plant height, leaf area, leaf and plant dry weight, grain yield and grain protein percentage were significant. The most positive effect on most of the traits due to the simple effect of treatments was local compost treatment and had better results than manure and phosphorus fertilizer.


Main Subjects

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