Investigation of the effects of drought stress and abscisic acid foliar application on yield, physiological and biochemical properties of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia cv. Organic Munstead)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 2. Assistant Professor of Medicinal plants breeding, Horticultural Sciences Department, Plant Production Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan,

2 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural, Gorgan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran


Background and objectives: Lavender is widely cultivated worldwide with its economic and ornamental potential and its high use in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth worldwide and the most common environmental stress. In general, drought is considered to be the major environmental factor causing disturbance in water status and having a key impact on physiological and biochemical processes such as increased plant osmolality. In response to environmental stresses, abscisic acid plays an important role in initiating and coordinating many physiological and biochemical processes in reducing oxidative stress. Due to the fact that drought and water deficit in Iran is always one of the most important agricultural problems and due to the unique medicinal properties of lavender, the present study was conducted to evaluate the yield, physiological and biochemical properties of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Organic Munstead in irrigation regimes and application of abscisic acid was performed in order to understand how to induce drought tolerance.
Materials and methods: In order to study the effects of drought and abscisic acid on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Organic Munstead, a pot experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Plant Production faculty of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, during growing season of 2017-18. The first factor was irrigation regimes in four levels (30-40, 50-60, 70-80 and 90-100% field capacity) and the second factor was abscisic acid spry including three levels (0, 15 and 30 µM/L). Traits evaluated were wet and dry weight and leaf area index, total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH antioxidant activity, proline, carotenoid, RWC and soluble carbohydrate.
Results: The results showed that drought increase phenol (151.42 mg/g) and carotenoid (46.32 mg/g) compared to control. Abscisic acid had significant effect on all traits except of phenol and carotenoid. Also interaction effect of drought and abscisic acid was significant for all traits except of phenol and carotenoid content that were the highest in abscisic acid 30 µM/L and drought 30-40 and 50-60 percent field capacity increase antioxidant activity 47.56 and 53.93 percent and 55.20 and 65.72 percent soluble carbohydrate, respectively. abscisic acid 30 µM/L spray and drought 30-40 increase proline 120.17 percent. Also, the highest RWC amount (78.74 percent) from interaction abscisic acid 30 µM/L and drought 90-100 percent field capacity.
Conclusion: Generally, abscisic acid 30 µM/L application and drought 30-40 and 50-60% field capacity Introduces the best treatment, due to the lower consumption of water and the use of abscisic acid in stress conditions, higher levels of abscisic acid can be achieved in inducing drought tolerance.


  1. Arulbalachandran, D., Yasmin, K., and Jothimani, K. 2016. Role of ABA on antioxidant mechanism under drought crops. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag. 6: 1092. 48-55.
  2. Babaie, K., Amini Dehaghi, M., Modares Sanavie, S., and Jbarie, R. 2010. Effect of drought stress on morphological traits, proline content and thymol percentage in thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Ir J. Med Aromat Plant. 26: 2. 251-259. (In 
  3. Barnes, J.D., Balaguer, L., Manrique, E., Elvira, S., and Davison, A.W. A reappraisal of the use of DMSO for the extraction and determination of chlorophyll a and b in lichens and higher plants. Environ. Exp. 32: 2. 85-100.
  4. Bates S, Waldern, R.P., and Teare, E.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil. 39: 1. 205-207.
  5. Baxter, A., Mittler, R., and Suzuki, N. 2014. ROS as key players in plant stress signaling. Exp. Bot. 65: 6. 1229-1240.
  6. Brahmi, C., Kopp, C., Domart-Coulon, I., Stolarski, J., and Meibom, A. 2012. Skeletal growth dynamics linked to trace-element composition in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis. Cosmochim. Acta. 99: 11. 146-158.
  7. Chang, H.J. 2002. Kicking away the ladder: development strategy in historical perspective. Anthem Press. 167 p.
  8. Chang, W.C., Kim, S.C., Hwang, S.S., Choi, B.K., and Kim, S.K. 2002. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity between Korean medicinal plants and flavonoids by assay-guided comparison. Plant Sci. 163: 6. 1161-1168.
  9. Chehelgardi, A., Saffari, M., and abdolshahie, A. 2014. The Effect of superabsorbent polymer, sulfatepthasium and manure on physiological traits of Setaria italica in favorable irrigation and drought stress conditions. Crop Prod. 7: 9. 43-60.
  10. Cunhua, S., Jian-jie, S., Dan, W., Bai-Wei, L., and Dong, S. 2011. Effects on physiological and biochemical characteristics of medicinal plant pig weed by drought stresses. Med. Plant Res. 5: 17. 4041- 4048.
  11. Dai, A., 2013. Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature.
  12. Deng, Y., Wang, C., Huo, J., Hu, W., and Liao, W. 2019. The involvement of NO in ABA-delayed the senescence of cut roses by maintaining water content and antioxidant enzymes activity. Hortic. 247: 14. 35-41.
  13. Du, B., and Rennenberg, H. 2018. Physiological responses of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) to water deficit and recovery. South Afr. J. Bot. 119: 8. 212-218.
  14. Foyer, C., and Noctor, G. 2003. Redox sensing and signaling associated with reactive oxygen in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. Plant. 119: 3. 355-364.
  15. Gorgini Shabankareh, H., and Khorasaninejad, S. The effects of Sodium nitroprusside on some physiological and biochemical properties of Satureja khuzestanica under irrigation regimes. J Prod Res. 3: 7. 55-70. (In Persian)
  16. Gorgini Shabankareh, Khorasaninejad, S., Sadeghi, M., and Tabasi, A. 2018. The effect of irrigation interval and humic acid on morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of thyme (Thymus vulgaris). J. Ir. Plant Ecophysiol Res. 51: 18. 67-82. (In Persian)
  17. Hosseini Boldaji, S.A., Khavari-Nejad, R.A., Hassan Sajedi, R., Fahimi, H., and Saadatmand, S. 2012. Water availability effects on antioxidant enzyme activities lipid peroxidation, and reducing sugar contents of alfalfa (Medicago sativa ). Acta Physiol. Plant. 34: 3. 1177-1186.
  18. Kafi, M., Borzoie, A., Salehie, M., Kamandi, A., Maasumie, A., and Nabati, J. 2009. Physiology of environmental stresses in plants. Academic Center for Education. 502 p.
  19. Khorasaninejad, S., Alizadeh Ahmadabadi, A., and Hemmati, K. 2018.The effect of humic acid on leaf morpho-physiological and phytochemical properties of Echinacea purpurea under water deficit stress. Sci. Hortic. 239: 23. 314-323.
  20. Kocsy, G., Tari, I., Vankova, R., Zechmann, B., Gulyas, Z., Poor, P., and Galiba, G. 2013. Redox control of plant growth and development. Plant Sci. 211: 19. 77-91.
  21. Kumar, S., Kaushal, N., Nayyar, H., and Gaur, P. 2012. Abscisic acid induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum ) seedlings by facilitated accumulation of osmoprotectants. Acta Physiol. Plant. 34: 5. 1651-1658.
  22. Lai, P., and Roy, J. 2004. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Med. Chem. 11: 11. 1451-1460.
  23. Levitt, J. 1986. Recovery of Turgor by Wilted, Excised Cabbage Leaves in the Absence of Water Uptake. Plant Physiol. 82: 1. 147-153.
  24. Li, L.J., Gu, W.R., Meng, Y., Wang, Y.L., Mu, J.Y., Li, J., and Wei, S. 2018. Physiological and biochemical mechanism of spermidine improving drought resistance in maize seedlings under drought stress. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 29: 2. 554-564.
  25. Lu, S., Sub, W. Li, H., and Guo, Z. 2009. Abscisic acid improves drought tolerance of triploid Bermuda grass and involves H2O2-and NO-induced antioxidant enzyme activities. Plant Physiol Bioch. 47: 2. 132-138.
  26. McDonald, P., and Ho, M.H.R. 2002. Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. 7: 1. 64-69.
  27. Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P.R., and Van Beek, T.A. 2004. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem. 85: 2. 231-237.
  28. Mirzaie, M., Moiene, A., and Ghanati, F. 2014. Effect of drought stress on proline and soluble sugar in rapeseed (Brassica nupus) seedlings. Ir. J. Bot. 26: 12. 90-98. (In Persian)

29. Moradi, P. 2017. Effect of drought stress on growth and hormonal changes of thyme (Thymus Vulgaris). J. Plant Proc Func. 6: 19. 312-323. (In Persian)

  1. Mozafari, S., Khorasaninejad, S., and Gorgini Shabankareh, H. 2017. The Effect of irrigation regimens on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of purapole medicinal plant in greenhouse. Agric Crop 19: 24. 401-416. (In Persian)
  2. Najafzadeh Asl, S., and Ehsanpoure, A. 2012. The effect of drought stress on some physiological indices of two potato cultivars (Concord and Kenebec) under in vitro culture conditions. Arid Biomet. 2: 9. 70-82. (In Persian)
  3. Namvar, A., Hadi, H., and Seyed sharifi, R. 2017. The role of external sources of plant protection in modulating the destructive effects of non-biological tensions. J. Ir. Plant Eco-physiol Res. 12: 17. 103-128. (In Persian)
  4. Niknam, V., Razavi, N., Ebrahimzadeh, H., and Sharifizadeh, B. 2006. Effect of NaCl on biomass, protein and proline contents and antioxidant enzymes in seedlings and calli of two Trigonella Species. Biol Plantarum. 50: 4. 591-596.
  5. Omokolo, N.D., Nankeu, D. J., Niemenak, N., and Djocgoue, P.F. 2002. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in the cortex of nine clones of Theobroma cacao in relation to their susceptibility to Phytophthora megakarya. J. Crop Prot. 21: 5. 395-402.
  6. Osakabe, Y., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Shinozak, K., and Tran, L. 2014. ABA control of plant macroelement membrane transport systems in response to water deficit and high salinity. New Phytol. 202: 1. 35-49.
  7. Pessarakli, M. 2019. Handbook of plant and crop stress. CRc press.
  8. Qi, J., Song, C.P., Wang, B., Zhou, J., Kangasjarvi, J., Zhu, J.K., and Gong, Z. 2018. Reactive oxygen species signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack. Integr. Plant Biol. 60: 9. 805-826.
  9. Rabani, M., Rezaian deloie, R., and Jabari Noqabi, M. 2014. Antibacterial effect of lavender essential oil on Xanthomonas campestris and Escherichia coli. Agro-ecol J. 33: 3. 195-201.
  10. Rahbarian, P., Afsharmanesh, G., and Shirzadi, M.H. 2010. Effects of drought stress and manure on relative water content and cell membrane stability in dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica). Plant Eco-physiol. 2: 1. 13-19. (In Persian)
  11. Sanjari Mijani, M., Sirousmehr, A.R., and Fakheri, B. 2015. The effect of drought stress and humic acid on some physiological characteristics of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Agric Crop 17: 2. 403-414. (In Persian)
  12. Shinohara, T., and Leskovar, D. 2014. Effects of ABA, antitranspirants, heat and drought stress on plant growth, physiology and water status of artichoke transplants. Hortic.165: 29. 225-234.
  13. Stanev, S., Zagorcheva, T., and Atanassiov, I. 2016. Lavender cultivation in Bulgaria-21st century developments, breeding challenges and opportunities. Bulg J Agric Sci. 22: 4. 584-590.
  14. Taghipoure, Z., Asghari Zakaria, R., Zareh, N., and Shikhzade, P. 2014. The Evaluation of some physiological traits in populations of Aegilops triuncialis under drought stress. Rangelandforest plant Breed Res. 22: 1. 55-66. (In Persian)
  15. Upson, T.M., and Andrews, S. 2004. The Genus Lavandula, a Botanical Magazine Monograph. Kew: Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK.
  16. Wang, F., Liu, J., Chen, M., Zhou, L., Li, Z., Zhao, Q., Pan, G., Zaidi, S.H.R., and Cheng, F. 2016. Involvement of Abscisic Acid in PSII Photo damage and D1 Protein Turnover for Light-Induced Premature Senescence of Rice Flag Leaves. PLoS One. 11: 8. 161-272.
  17. Wilkinson, S., and Davies, W.J. 2010. Drought, ozone, ABA and ethylene: New insights from cell to plant to community. Plant Cell Environ. 33: 4. 510-525.
  18. Woo Lim, C., Baek, W., Jung, J., Kim, J., and Lee, S.C. 2015. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses. J. Mol. Sci. 16: 7. 15251-15270.
  19. Yamasaki, S., and Dillenburg, L.R. 1999. Measurements of leaf relative water content in Araucaria angustifolia. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 11: 2. 69-75.

49. ousefi, M., Enteshari, Sh., and Saadatmand, M. 2014.  Investigating the effect of silica treatment on some morphological, analytical and physiological  characteristics of Bacillus (Echium amoenum Fisch & C. .mey). J. Sci Technol Greenh Cult. 5: 2. 83-94. (In  Persian)

  1. Yu, F., Wu, Y., and Xie, Q. 2016. Ubiquitin–Proteasome System in ABA Signaling: From Perception to Action. Mol Plant. 9: 1. 21-33.