عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Nowadays, conventional farming has resulted in many negative foot prints such as groundwater Pollution, soil erosion, and decreasing food quality, therefor using alternative management methods, such as organic and integrated farming are necessary for crops sustainable production. Application of organic fertilizers (manure) and zeolite could improve crop yield by supplying nutrients and modifying soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Due to the importance of soybean (Glycine max L.), this research was aimed to evaluate the effect of organic, chemical and integrated nutrient resources along with zeolte apllication on yield and quality traits of two soybean cultivares.
Material and methods: To investigate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizers and application of zeolite on seme quantitive and quality traits of two soybean cultivars, a factorial experiment based on the randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at a field which is located at Aleshtar in 2014 and 2015. The factors were consisted of two soybean cultivars (M7 and M9) and five fertilizer systems (100% organic fertilizer, 100% chemical fertilizer, 50% organic plus 50% chemical fertilizer, 25% organic plus 75% chemical fertilizer, 75% organic plus 25% chemical fertilizer) and four zeolite rates ( 0, 4, 8 and 12 tons ha-1). The rate for 100% manure was 22.6 and 26.7 ton ha-1 and for 100% chemical fertilizer was 241 and 247 kg N ha-1 in the first and second season, respectively.
Results: The highest seed yield of M7 cultivar in the first year (2896 kg ha-1) and the second year (2971) was obtanid under integrated fertilizer systems of 75 organic manure+25%chemical fertilizer along with high zeolite rate (12 ton ha-1) and the lowest seed yield was achieved at chemical fertilizer without apllication of zeolite. 75% organic fertilizer + 25% urea with 12 ton zeolite ha-1and 50%, urea + 50% organic fertilizer with 6 ton zeolite ha-1 combinations led to the highest seed oil yield for M7 and M9 cultivars, respectively, while the lowest values in M7 and M9 cultivars were achieved at 100% urea fertilizer and 50%, urea + 50% organic fertilizer treatments without zeolite application (Z1), respectively. The increasing zeolite rate improved both qualitative and quantitative traits in two cultivars, as, increasing the zeolite from 0 to 12 ton ha-1 rose M7 seed yield by 55, 73 and 66% in F2, 100% urea, F4, 75% urea + 25% cattle manure and 75% cattle manure + 25% urea treatments, respectively. Also, adding zeolite amendment improved both oil and protein yield of cultivars.
Conclusion: Since the integrated nutrition manegment of 75% organic manure+25% chemichal resulted in reduced chemical fertilizers as well as increased yield and quality of two cultivars, this tratments could be considered as asuitable nutrient manegment method for soybean production in this area. Also, due to higher yield and better qulitve properties of M7 cultivar than M9 cultivar, it would ne considered as a proper cultivar in this area.