عنوان مقاله [English]
Rosemary is used in perfume and cosmetic industries. It has several medicinal properties like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, carminative and nervine spasmodic. Biofertilizers spraying including; amino acids, hormones and vermiwash immediatly effects and causes to maintaining economic affairs and environmental protection. In general, amino acid stimulus and plant growth regulator can improve uptake of nutrients and increase crop yield and photosynthes. Vermiwash contains micro plant nutrients, some nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria, plant growth hormones and amino acids. Also, harvest time influences the effective combination of medicinal plants, because the quantity and quality of plant essential oils vary in different times. Considering the need to manage plant nutrition in order to increase and sustain production and preserve the environment, this examination was carried out to investigate some qualitative and physiological characteristics of Rosemary under the influence of various nutritional compounds spraying at different harvest time.
This examination was carried out in split plot based on Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications at the Zabol Agricultural Research institition farm in 2015. Harvest time included the autumn’s harvest (late autumn), the spring’s harvest (late spring) and the second harvest from plants that cut last autumn (late spring) were considered as a major factor. In addition, nutritional compounds spraying including: Aminolforte (1 L.ha-1), Hiumeforte (1.5 L.ha-1), Salicylic acid (200 mg.L-1), Gibberellin (300 mg.L-1), Vermiwash (1 vermiwash: 1 distilled water) as well as the control were considered as subplot factor. The first spraying was in early autumn and the second one was in late winter. Each stage of spraying was applied about three months before their harvest time.
Interaction of autumn’s harvest and hiumeforte had the highest protein content (25 mg.L-1). By interactions of spring’s harvest and gibberellin spraying the maximum of chlorophyll a, oil percentage and its yield (4.05 mg.gr-1, 1.98 & 69/66 kg.ha-1), of vermiwash the higthest phosphorus and the dry matter yield (7845 ppm & 3683 kg.ha-1 ), of hiumeforte the maximum of essential oil content and its yield (1.68 & 61/73 kg.ha-1), and spraying of salicylic acid the higthest soluble carbohydrates (0.016 mg glu.gr-1) were measured in shoot. The maximum amount of catalase (0/016 OD min/mg protein), nitrogen (11400 ppm) and potassium (6716 ppm) were obtained in second harvest from plants that cut last autumn and hiumeforte, aminolforte and vermiwash, respectivly. Because amino acids are absorbed to leaves more quickly through stomata by spraying and involved in the production of nitrogen, protein, and chlorophylls. Therefore, hiumeforte and aminolforte increased protein, catalase and dry matter yield. Hiumeforte increased the essential oil content and yield by participation in both primary and secondary metabolic processes in assocaited with plant growth and development, as a driving factor of production. Gibberellin has a role in the chloroplast structural and possibly due to the high potential of rosemary, the amount of chlorophyll synthesis increased. Indeed, gibberellin increased oil yield, due to the ability of assimilation in the production of secondary metabolites. Salicylic acid maintained the high level of carbohydrates in the Rosemary chloroplasts. Vermiwash contains inorganic and absorbable phosphorus and high levels of exchangeable and non-exchangeable potassium. As a result, it increased the amount of phosphorus, potassium and dry matter yield in Rosemary, duo to the quickly and directly absorption.
In general, the spring’s harvest and the foliar application of amino acid compounds, due to fresh leaves and optimum environmental conditions for growth and development, had the greatest impact on improving nitrogen, protein, essential oil content and yield. Additionally, the foliar application of vermiwash in the spring’s harvest had the greatest effect on increasing dry matter yield and improving phosphorus and potassium of Rosemary.