ارزیابی چرخه حیات ردپای اکولوژیک آب در تولید گندم تحت اثر رژیم‌های آبیاری با کاربرد نانوسیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم در منطقه بوشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدیرگروه کشاورزی پیام نور استان بوشهر

2 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج

3 عضو هیأت علمی، بخش علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: بر اساس مطالعه‌های انجام شده از جمله راهکارهای اساسی برای حل مشکل کم‌آبی مصرف کودهای سیلیس و پتاسیم است که می‌تواند برای افزایش تحمل گیاهان به تنش‌های زنده و غیرزنده بسیار سودمند باشد. در بسیاری از پژوهش‌ها گزارش شده است که مصرف سیلیس و پتاسیم به دلیل ایجاد مقاومت مکانیکی حالت عمودی را به برگ و ساقه می‌دهد که خود باعث افزایش نفوذ نور به درون تاج‌پوشش گیاهان می‌شود که گیاه می‌تواند میزان فتوسنتز بیشتری را انجام دهد. بنابراین، این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی چرخه حیات ردپای اکولوژیک آب تولید گندم تحت اثر رژیم‌های آبیاری با کاربرد نانوکود سیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی واقع در بوشهر در سال زراعی 96-1395 اجرا شد. دور آبیاری در چهار سطح شامل: 1- فاصله آبیاری دو روز یکبار (بدون تنش)، 2- فاصله آبیاری چهار روز یکبار، 3- فاصله آبیاری شش روز یکبار، و 4- فاصله آبیاری هشت روز یکبار به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و محلول‌پاشی کودهای نانوسیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم و عدم مصرف آن‌ها (شاهد) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. محلول‌پاشی نانوسیلیس با غلظت 20 قسمت در میلیون در مراحل اواسط پنجه‌زنی، اواخر پنجه‌زنی و بعد از خروج کامل سنبله صورت گرفت. محلول‌پاشی نانوکلات پتاسیم نیز در دو مرحله اواسط پنجه‌زنی و ظهور سنبله به مقدار دو در هزار انجام شد.
نتایج: یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که با تأخیر فاصله آبیاری از دو روز به هشت روز یکبار درصد پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (3572 کیلوگرم در هکتار) برای فاصله آبیاری دو و چهار روز یکبار با مصرف نانوکلات پتاسیم به‌دست آمد که به‌دلیل افزایش طول سنبله، تعداد دانه در بوته و تعداد دانه در سنبله بود. عملکرد دانه با مصرف نانوسیلیس برای فواصل آبیاری دو و چهار روز یکبار نیز در رتبه‌های بعدی قرار گرفت. با تأخیر در آبیاری از دو روز به هشت روز یکبار میزان آب مصرف شده معادل 35/7 درصد کاهش یافت. بالاترین کارایی مصرف آب (12/2 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) برای فاصله آبیاری دو روز یکبار به‌دست آمد. در هر چهار رژیم آبیاری بیشترین بهره‌وری آب با مصرف نانوسیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم به‌دست آمد که اثرات مثبت نانوکلات پتاسیم بیشتر بود. انتشار دی‌اکسید کربن در فاصله آبیاری دو روز یکبار معادل 47/5 درصد در مقایسه با فاصله آبیاری هشت روز یکبار کاهش ولی شاخص اشغال زمین معادل 2/7 درصد افزایش یافت. با افزایش فواصل آبیاری از دو روز به هشت روز یکبار مقادیر شاخص‌های کیفیت بوم‌نظام، تخلیه منابع، کمبود منابع آب و شاخص کمبود آب کشاورزی به‌ترتیب برابر 21/8، 8، 89/10 و 29/9، 91/9 درصد کاهش نشان داد. با مصرف نانوسیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم شاخص‌های تخلیه منابع، کمبود منابع آب کشاورزی، شاخص تخلیه آب و شاخص کمبود آب کمتر از تیمار عدم مصرف نانوذرات بود. شاخص تخلیه آب معادل 28/7 و 24/8 درصد و شاخص کمبود آب معادل 70/9 و 57/8 درصد با مصرف نانوسیلیس و نانوکلات پتاسیم در مقایسه با تیمار عدم مصرف کاهش یافت.
نتیجه‌گیری: طبق یافته‌ها، بهترین رژیم آبیاری از نظر بهبود عملکرد کمی و کیفی، افزایش کارایی و بهره‌وری آب و همچنین کاهش ردپای اکولوژیک آب فواصل آبیاری دو و چهار روز یکبار بود که در یک سطح آماری قرار گرفتند. در هر چهار رژیم آبیاری با مصرف نانوکلات پتاسیم و نانوسیلیس عملکرد کمی و کیفی گندم افزایش و نیاز آبی گیاه کاهش یافت. بنابراین، مصرف نانوکلات پتاسیم و نانوسیلیس منجر به افزایش بهره‌وری آب و عملکرد کمی و کیفی و تحمل گیاه گندم به تنش کم‌آبی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Life cycle assessment of ecological footprint of water in wheat production under effect of irrigation regimes with application nano-silicon and nano-potassium chelate in Boushehr region

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahboube ebrahimi 1
  • Salman Dastan 2
  • Reza Yadi 3
1 Head of agricultural department
2 Postdoctoral researcher, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Agricultural Science, Payame Noor University, I.R. of IRAN
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: According to the previous studies, the basic solutions for solving the problem of water use of silicon and potassium fertilizers, which can be very useful for increasing the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. It has been reported in many studies that the use of silicon and potassium, due to mechanical resistance, translates the vertical position into leaves and stems, which in turn increases the light penetration into plant's canopy that the plant can do more photosynthesis. Therefore, this research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the ecological footprint life cycle of wheat production under the effect of irrigation regimes with the use of nano-silicon and nano-potassium chelate.
Material and methods: The experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications at a research farm located in Boushehr during 2016-17. Irrigation regimes in four levels were: 1) irrigation interval 2 days (without stress), 2) irrigation interval 4 days, 3) irrigation interval 6 days, and 4) irrigation interval 8 days as main plots and nano-particle in three levels including nano-silicon, nano-potassium chelate and control (non-consumption) were considered as a sub-plots. Nano-silicon spraying with a concentration of 20 ppm was carried out at middle of tillage, the end of tillering and heading stages. Foliar application of nano-potassium chelate was used in middle of tillering and heading stages.
Results: The results of this study revealed that the irrigation interval delayed from two days to eight days leading to significantly decrease of the grain potassium percentage and grain protein content. The highest grain yield (3572 kg.ha-1) was obtained for irrigation intervals of two and four days with nano-potassium chelate consumption, which was due to spike length, number of grain per plant and number of grain per spike. Grain yields with nano-silicon application for irrigation intervals of two to four days were also ranked next. Delayed irrigation reduced the amount of water consumed by 7.35% from two days to eight days. The highest water use efficiency (2.12 kg.m3) was obtained for irrigation intervals of two days. In all four irrigation regimes, the highest water productivity (WP) was obtained with the use of nano-silicon and nano-potassium chelate utilization, which nano-potassium chelate had a more positive effect on WP. Carbon dioxide emission increased by two-day irrigation intervals about 5.47 percent compared to the eight-day irrigation interval, but the land occupation increased about 7.2 percent. With increasing irrigation intervals from two days to eight days, the impact categories of ecosystem quality, resource depletion, agricultural water scarcity, water depletion index (WDI) and water scarcity index (WSI) were decreased about 8.21, 8, 10.89, 9.29 and 9.91 percent. Furthermore, with the consumption of nano-silicon and nano-potassium chelate, the resource depletion, agricultural water depletion, WDI and WSI were lower than control treatment. The WDI about 7.28% and 8.24%, and about 9.7% and 8.57% was decreased with consumption of nano-silicon and nano-potassium chelate compared to control treatment.
Conclusion: According to the findings, the best irrigation regimes in terms of improving quantitative and qualitative yield, increasing the water use efficiency and water productivity, as well as reducing the ecological footprints of water was intervals irrigation with two to four days, which were at a statistical level. In all the four irrigation regimes, the quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat increased with the use of nano-potassium chelate and nano-silicon, but the plant's water requirement decreased. Therefore, the consumption of nano-potassium chelate and nano-silicon resulted in increased water productivity, quantitative and qualitative yield and tolerance of wheat plant to water stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CO2 emissions
  • Ecosystem quality
  • Land occupation
  • resource depletion
  • WP
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