ارزیابی سری جایگزینی کشت مخلوط لوبیا تپاری (Phaseolus acutifolus) و دو رقم ارزن (Panicum miliaceum) بر برخی ویژگی‌های عملکرد کمی و کیفی علوفه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، استان کرمان، ایران

2 عضو هیأت علمی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، استان کرمان، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

4 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: یکی از راهکارهای موثر در جهت حصول پایداری تولید با نهاده کم، افزایش تنوع نظام‌های کشت از طریق کشت مخلوط است. در این نظام ها، دو یا چند گیاه در یک زمان و مکان به‌ منظور افزایش کارآیی استفاده از منابع، کشت می‌شود. براساس نتایج، کشت مخلوط، بهبود ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفیت علوفه را به دنبال خواهد داشت. هدف از این بررسی، تعیین کمیت و کیفیت علوفه لوبیاتپاری، علوفه دو رقم ارزن و علوفه کل حاصل از کشت مخلوط سری جایگزینی این دو گیاه نسبت به کشت خالص است.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در منطقه جیرفت، در سال زراعی 95-1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ترکیب لوبیاتپاری و دو رقم ارزن پیشاهنگ و باستان و نسبت‌های اختلاط کشت مخلوط جایگزینی (75 : 25 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن باستان، 50 :50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن باستان، 25: 75 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن باستان، کشت خالص لوبیاتپاری، کشت خالص ارزن باستان و همین نسبت‌های اختلاط لوبیاتپاری با ارزن پیشاهنگ) با تراکم یکسان 300000 بوته در هکتار برای گیاهان موردنظر، بودند. کشت به‌طور همزمان، در تاریخ هفتم اردیبهشت و برداشت ارزن در خرداد ماه و لوبیاتپاری در تیر ماه صورت گرفت. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع لوبیاتپاری، تعداد شاخه فرعی لوبیاتپاری، وزن برگ خشک لوبیاتپاری، ارتفاع بوته ارزن، وزن خشک برگ ارزن، وزن خشک ساقه ارزن، عملکرد علوفه خشک لوبیاتپاری، عملکرد علوفه خشک ارزن، عملکرد علوفه کل، میزان الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و اسیدی، عملکرد پروتئین خام و شاخص نسبت برابری زمین بود. تجزیه آماری داده‌ها با نرم‌افزار SAS Ver. 12 و مقایسه میانگین‌ها به روش LSD و در سطح معنی دار پنج درصد انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد عملکرد علوفه خشک لوبیاتپاری تحت تأثیر اثرمتقابل نوع ارزن موجود در مخلوط و نسبت اختلاط قرار گرفت و بیشترین میزان آن، از تیمار 50 : 50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن پیشاهنگ و باستان بدست آمد. نوع رقم ارزن موجود در ترکیب و نسبت اختلاط کشت مخلوط بر علوفه خشک ارزن معنی‌دار شد و بیشترین میزان آن از ارزن رقم پیشاهنگ با 87/17 درصد افزایش، از نسبت اختلاط 25 : 75 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن بدست آمد که از لحاظ آماری تفاوتی با نسبت اختلاط 50 : 50 نداشت. بیشترین علوفه خشک کل نیز از تیمار 50 : 50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن باستان و به‌ ترتیب با 59/12 و 57/87 درصد افزایش نسبت به تک‌کشتی لوبیاتپاری و ارزن باستان، حاصل شد که میزان عملکرد این تیمار با تیمار 50: 50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن پیشاهنگ، از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. کمترین الیاف نامحلول در شوینده های اسیدی و خنثی و بیشترین عملکرد پروتئین خام در تیمارهای کشت مخلوط، دیده شد. شاخص نسبت برابری زمین، در کلیه تیمارها بیشتر از یک بود و بیشترین میزان آن در مخلوط 50:50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن با میزان 162/2، مشاهده شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: براساس نتایج بدست ‌آمده از این مطالعه، کشت مخلوط لوبیاتپاری و ارزن، نسبت به تک ‌کشتی این دو گیاه، برتری داشت به‌طوری‌ که عملکرد کل علوفه خشک تولیدی ترکیب 50:50 لوبیاتپاری- ارزن، بالاترین میزان تولید را به خود اختصاص داد که 59/12 درصد نسبت به تک‌ کشتی لوبیاتپاری و 58/87 درصد از تک‌ کشتی ارزن، بیشتر بود. شاخص نسبت برابری زمین نیز برتری همین نسبت اختلاط را نسبت به کشت خالص دو گیاه نشان داد. به‌نظر می‌رسد، الگوی کشت مخلوط دو گیاه لوبیا تپاری و ارزن با نسبت 50: 50 روش مناسبی جهت جایگزینی کشت خالص این گیاهان به منظور بهبود عملکرد کمی و کیفی می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of alternative series of Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolus) and tow millet (Panicum miliaceum) intercropping effects on some quantitative and quality traits and forage yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Badakhshan 1
  • Mahdiyeh Amirinejad 2
  • Enayat Allah Tphodinejad 3
  • Bahareh Parsa Motlagh 4
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran
3 Faculty member of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
4 Faculty member of university of jiroft
چکیده [English]

Background and objective: Intercropping is one of the most effective methods to achieve sustainable production with low input to increase the diversity in agro ecosystems. In these systems two or more plants are cultivated at a same time and place in order to increase the efficiency of the resources usage. Based on results, the intercropping bring about the improvement of qualitative and quality characteristics and forage yield. In order to Evaluation of Tepary bean and millet intercropping effects on some quantitative and quality traits and forage yield, this study was done in Jiroft area.
Materials and methods: The field experiment was done in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in Jiroft during 2015-2016. The treatments included combination of Tepary bean and two cultivars of millet (Bastan and Pishahang) and replacement intercropping ratio (75:25, 50:50, 25:75 Tepary bean- millet, sole cropping of Bastan millet, Pishahang millet and Tepary bean with 300000 plants/ha. Planting date was on 27th April. Millet and Tepary bean harvested on May and June, respectively. Traits such as Plant height of bean, Number of secondary branch of bean, Leaf dry weight of bean, Plant height of millet, Leaf dry weight of millet, Steam dry weight of millet, Dry forage yield of bean, Dry forage of millet, Total dry forage NDF, ADF, crude protein yield and LER were measured. Data analyses were conducted using SAS ver. 12 and analysis of means was done with the LSD’s test.
Results: The results showed that interaction of millet cultivars and intercropping ratio was affected dry forage of Tepary bean. The highest amount of Tepary bean dry forage was obtained from 50: 50 Tepary bean-millet cultivars percentage. Despite the lack of significant mutual effect of these two treatments on millet dry forage, the effect of millet cultivars in mixture and the mixing ratio on this trait was significant at 1% level. The highest amount was obtained from the presence of millet cultivars increasing by 87.8% with 25: 75 treatment of Tepary bean-millet cultivar. Statistically, there was not a great difference between this ratio and 50: 50 mixing ratio. The highest amount of dry forage was obtained from 50: 50 Tepary bean-millet cultivar with 12.59% and 87.57% increase compared to the single cropping of Tepary bean and millet cultivars percentage. Statistically, there was not a great difference between the performance of this treatment and 50: 50 treatment of Tepary bean-millet cultivar and saw the least ADF, NDF and the most crude protein yield in intercropping treatment. In all treatments, the parity ratio of the land was more than one. The highest amount was observed in the mixture of 50: 50 treatment of Tepary bean- Bastan cultivar.
Conclusion: According to this results, the intercropping of Tepary bean and millet was much better than their pure cropping so that the highest amount of dry forage was obtained from 50: 50 of Tepary bean-millet cultivars compared to the sole cropping of Tepary bean with 12.59% dry forage and millet cultivar with 87.57% dry forage. The LER also indicates the superiority of this mixing ratio compared to single cropping of these two plants. Therefore, in general, the intercropping treatment of these two plants with 50:50 ratio is an appropriate method to replace the pure culture of these plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diversity
  • Intercropping Ratio
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
  • sole cropping
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