تاثیر برخی روغن‌ها بر بهبود کارایی علف‌کش نیکوسولفورون در ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گیلان

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات. دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشگاه گیلان. دانشکده علوم کشاورزی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مواد افزودنی با افزایش کارایی علف‌کش‌های برگ‌مصرف امکان بهینه‌سازی میزان مصرف علف‌کش‌ها در راستای کاهش هزینه و اثرات نامطلوب آنها را فراهم می‌سازند. افزایش کارایی علف‌کش‌ها در راستای کنترل موثر علف‌های هرز به‌ویژه در دزهای پایین‌تر علف‌کش دارای اهمیت بسیار است و می‌تواند به عنوان راهکاری در راستای کاهش مصرف علف‌کش‌ها مدنظر قرار گیرد. روغن‌های گیاهی به‌عنوان یکی از انواع مواد افزودنی به‌سبب سمیت و خطرات کمتر، بوم‌سازگاری و تجدید و تجزیه‌پذیری طبیعی مورد توجه بیشتری قرار گرفته‌اند. اثر انواع مواد افزودنی در کاهش یا افزایش اثر علف‌کش بسته به نوع، ویژگی‌ها و فرمولاسیون علف‌کش‌ها، گونه‌های علف‌هرز و شرایط محیطی متفاوت است؛ از این‌رو یافتن ماده افزودنی مناسب برای هر علف‌کش نیازمند انجام آزمایش‌های مزرعه‌ای است. بنابراین در این تحقیق اثر افزودن روغن ولک و برخی روغن‌های گیاهی به علف‌کش نیکوسولفورون (کروز) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: مطالعه مزرعه‌ای به منظور ارزیابی کارایی علف‌کش نیکوسولفورون در کنترل علف‌های هرز و اثر بر صفات عملکرد ذرت در شرایط کاربرد انفرادی و یا با افزودن روغن‌های زیتون، کرچک، کنجد، بادام شیرین، بادام تلخ و ولک به مخزن سمپاش و مقایسه با شرایط آلوده به و عاری از علف‌های هرز در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در قطعه زمینی واقع در ماهیدشت استان کرمانشاه به اجرا در آمد.
یافته‌ها: افزودن روغن‌های زیتون، کرچک و ولک توانست تراکم تاج خروس، دم روباهی سبز و عروسک پشت پرده و وزن خشک کل علف‌های هرز را تاحد تیمار عاری از علف‌هرز کاهش دهد. هیچ‌یک از تیمارهای مدیریت شیمیایی نتوانست تراکم تاج‌ریزی نارنجی و کل علف‌های هرز را به اندازه تیمار عاری از علف‌هرز کنترل کند. تاج‌ریزی نارنجی نسبت به نیکوسولفورون درجاتی از تحمل را نشان داد. کاهش ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه، شاخص برداشت و وزن هزار دانه ذرت نسبت به شرایط عاری از علف‌هرز به‌ترتیب در شرایط عدم کنترل علف‌های هرز 22، 41، 59، 30 و 5 درصد، و در کاربرد انفرادی نیکوسولفورون 13، 8، 10، 2 و 1 درصد بود. افزودن همه روغن‌ها کاهش ارتفاع را به 7 درصد، و افزودن روغن زیتون و کرچک کاهش عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه را به 5/2 درصد تقلیل داد؛ اگرچه هیچ‌یک نتوانست تولیدی معادل شاهد عاری از علف‌هرز داشته باشد. شاخص برداشت و وزن هزار دانه ذرت با کاربرد نیکوسولفورون در ترکیب با روغن‌های زیتون، کرچک، کنجد تفاوت معنی‌داری با شرایط عاری از علف‌هرز نداشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: با افزودن روغن‌های گیاهی و نفتی به نیکوسولفورون کنترل گونه‌های علف‌هرز بهبود یافت. افزایش کارایی نیکوسولفورون در گونه‌های علف‌هرز بواسطه‌ بهره‌گیری از انواع روغن‌ها متفاوت بود. به‌طور کلی، روغن‌های زیتون و کرچک، بهترین نتیجه را در افزایش کارایی نیکوسولفوورن در کنترل علف‌های هرز و صفات مرتبط با عملکرد ذرت نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of some vegetable oils on optimizing nicosulfurun efficacy in corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kianoosh moradi 2
  • jafar asghari 3
2 Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of , agricultural sciences, university of guilan
3 agronomy and plant breeding, faculty of agricultural sciences, university og guilan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Adjuvants through improving the performance of foliar-applied herbicides aim to optimize herbicide rates and minimize their cost and adverse effects. Enhancement in the efficacy of herbicides for effective weed control is of great importance, especially at lower dosage and it could be considered as an approach to reduce application rates of herbicides.Vegetable oils, as one of the adjuvants, have aroused a point of interest because of their less toxicity and risk, eco- compatibility and, natural renewability and biodegradability. The effect of adjuvant types to increase or decrease herbicides efficacy depend on type, characteristics, and formulation of herbicides, weed species, and environmental conditions; therefore to detect appropriate adjuvant for each herbicide, field experiments are required. Thus, the effects of petroleum (volck) and some vegetative oils in combination with nicosulfuron (Cruz) were investigated in this study.
Materials and methods: In order to evaluate nicosulfuron efficacy for weed control and the effects on corn yield characteristics when it was applied alone and tank-mixed with petroleum (volck), olive, castor, sesame, bitter almond, and sweet almond comparing to weedfree and weed infested condition, this field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at a field located at Mahi-dasht, Kermanshah province.
Results: The addition of olive, castor and volck oils were able to decrease density of redroot pigweed, green foxtail and groundcherry, and dry weight of total weeds to the extent of weedfree control. None of chemical management treatments could control orange nightshade and total weeds density as much as weed-free treatment. Orange nightshade showed a high level of tolerance to nicosulfuron. Plant height, biological and grain yield, harvest index, and thousand-seed weight of corn compared to weedfree condition was 22, 41, 59, 30, and 5% for weedinfested, and 13, 8, 10, 2, and 1% for nicosulfuron applied alone, respectively. Tank mixing of all oils wanes height reduction to 7%, olive and castor oils decreased biological and grain yield reduction to 2.5%; although none of them could produce the same as weed free treatment. Corn harvest index and thousand-seed weight, when nicosulfuron applied in combination with olive, castor and sesame oils did not differed significantly from weed free control.
Conclusion: Weed species control improved when nicosulfuron applied with petroleum and vegetable oil adjuvants. Herbicide efficacy enhancement for weed species were different by utilizing various oils. In general, olive and castor oils showed the best results for nicosulfuron efficacy on weeds and corn yield related traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tank-mixed adjuvants
  • Vegetable oils
  • Volck oil
  • Weed management
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