ارزیابی زراعی – بوم شناختی اراضی شهرستان گنبدکاوس جهت کشت گندم دیم با استفاده از تحلیل‌های مکانی GIS

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته

2 هیات علمی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: گندم در سطح وسیعی از اراضی کشاورزی دنیا تحت نظام های مختلف زراعی کشت می‌شود. حدود ٦٦ درصد از سطح زیر کشت گندم در ایران به‌صورت دیم می‌باشد. برآوردهای موجود نشان می‌دهد که نیاز ایران به گندم تا سال 1400 از مرز 20 میلیون تن در سال خواهد گذشت. تعیین تناسب اراضی برای یک گیاه خاص مانند گندم نیازمند در نظر گرفتن بسیاری از متغیرهاست. ارزیابی متغیرهای محیطی و درک محدودیت‌های فیزیکی می‌تواند به تعیین مناطق مستعد کشاورزی کمک کند. ویژگی‌های توپوگرافی، شرایط اقلیمی و کیفیت خاک یک منطقه مهمترین متغیرهای تاثیرگذار در ارزیابی تناسب اراضی هستند. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی زراعی – بوم شناختی اراضی کشاورزی شهرستان گنبدکاوس جهت کشت گندم دیم با استفاده از قابلیت‌ها و تحلیل‌های مکانی سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)می‌باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: برای این کار ابتدا نیازهای زراعی – بوم‌شناختی گیاه گندم با استفاده از منابع علمی تعیین گردید. سپس براساس آن، نقشه‌های موضوعی مورد نیاز تهیه شدند. متغیرهای محیطی مورد مطالعه دمای متوسط سالانه، دمای کمینه سالانه، دمای بیشینه سالانه، دمای مطلوب جوانه زنی، دمای مطلوب سبنله‌دهی، دمای مطلوب پر شدن دانه، متوسط تشعشع، بارش سالانه، بارش پاییزه، بارش بهاره، بارش اردیبهشت ماه، درصد شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، جهات شیب، ماده آلی، شوری وpH می‌باشد. پس از تهیه این لایه‌ها، کار طبقه‌بندی و رتبه‌بندی هر لایه در چهار طبقه (بسیار مستعد، مستعد، نیمه‌مستعد و غیر مستعد) صورت گرفت. از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی برای تعیین وزن معیارها از طریق تجزیه و تحلیل پرسشنامه‌های AHPاستفاده شد. در پایان بوسیله روش هم‌پوشانی وزنی در محیط GIS، نقشه تناسب اراضی در 4 پهنه تولید شد.
یافته‌ها: در این مطالعه مشخص گردید که به ترتیب 20/9 و 73/24 درصد از زمین‌های کشاورزی شهرستان گنبدکاوس جهت تولید گندم در پهنه‌های بسیار مستعد و مستعد قرار می‌گیرند. این مناطق در بخش‌های جنوبی شهرستان شناسایی شدند. در این اراضی از نظر انواع متغیرهای بارش و دما، درصد شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و عوامل خاکی، محدودیتی جهت کشت گندم دیم وجود ندارد. در این ارزیابی پهنه‌های نیمه مستعد (92/39 درصد) و غیر مستعد (15/26 درصد) به قسمت‌های مرکزی، شمالی و شمال شرقی شهرستان اختصاص یافت. این مناطق حداقل از نظر یک متغیر محیطی دارای محدودیت بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: در این تحقیق مشخص شد که بیشتر اراضی کشاورزی مورد مطالعه از نظر توپوگرافی و اقلیمی شرایط مناسبی برای تولید گندم دارند و محدودیتی از این نظر وجود ندارد. از عوامل محدودکننده کشت گندم دیم در مناطق نیمه مستعد و غیر مستعد، بارش اندک سالانه و بهاره، درصد ماده‌آلی پایین و شوری بالای خاک را می‌توان نام برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Agroecological evaluation of Gonbad–e-Kavous township for rainfed wheat cultivation by spatial analysis of GIS

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Wheat is grown worldwide in agricultural lands under different cropping systems. About 66% of cultivated area of wheat in Iran was belonged to rainfed cropping. Current estimation show that Iran needs to approximately 25 billions ton of wheat in 2021. Land suitability determination for a particular agricultural crop such as wheat requires consideration of many criteria. Evaluation of the environmental components and understanding of local biophysical restraints can help determine the areas suitable for agriculture. Topographic characteristics, climatic conditions and the soil quality of an area are the most important parameters to evaluate land suitability. The objective of this research was agroecological evaluation of Gonbad–e-Kavous township for rainfed wheat cultivation by potential and spatial analysis of geographic information system (GIS).
Materials and methods: For this purpose, agroecological requirements of crop firstly, identified according to scientific resources. Thematic requirement maps were then provided. In this research, studied environmental variables were as annual, autumn, spring and May precipitations, average, minimum and maximum temperatures, germination temperature, the maximum temperature in heding and grain filling stages, slope percent, elevation, slope aspect, OM, pH, and EC. Then, each layer was classified into four classes (high suitable, suitable, less suitable and non-suitable). The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of criteria by using the questrationnaires analysis sheet. In final, by weighted overlay technique in geographic information system (GIS) media, land suitability map was generated in 4 classes.
Results: In this study, the results showed that about 9.20% and 24.73% of agricultural lands in Gonbad–e-Kavous township were located in the high suitable and suitable zones for rainfed wheat cultivation, respectively. These regions were identified in the south of this township. In these zones, there are not limiting factors for wheat cultivation according to precipitation and temperatures variables, slope percent, elevation and soil characteristics. In this evaluation, the less suitable (39.92%) and non-suitable (26.15%) regions were located in the some areas of central, north, and northeast of Gonbad–e-Kavous. In addition, these areas were faced by at least one limitation factors from environmental variable.
Conclusion: In this research, it was identified that almost of total studied areas were suitable for wheat cultivation according to topography and climatic conditions. Results showed that the limiting factors in less suitable and non-suitable regions were including: non-suitable annual and spring precipitations, low content of organic matter and high EC.
Keywords: Environmental variables, geostatistic, Gonbad–e-Kavous, land suitability, rainfed wheat.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental variables
  • geostatistic
  • Gonbad–e-Kavous
  • land suitability
  • rainfed wheat
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