بررسی خصوصیات رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی گندم و جو در سیتم‌ کشت راهرویی در منطقه سامان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهرکرد

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: رشد گیاه در بر گیرنده مجموعه‌ای از فرآیندهای بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیکی است که این فرآیندها با یکدیگر اثرات متقابل برقرار و تحت تاثیر عوامل محیطی مختلف از جمله نور قرار می‌گیرند. شناخت و بررسی شاخص‌های رشد، در تجزبه و تحلیل عوامل موثر بر تجمع ماده خشک از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. از آنجاکه در سیستم‌های مختلف زراعی از جمله کشت راهرویی بیش از یک گونه در کنار هم رشد و نمو می‌کنند، بنابراین بررسی رفتارگیاهان می‌تواند از نظر زراعی بسیار مهم و ضروری باشد. لذا هدف از این تحقیق بررسی ادغام درخت و گیاهان زراعی در سیستم‌ راهرویی به منظور حفظ و یا افزایش ماده خشک گیاه، تحت بهره وری بهتر از منابع است. ترویج این شیوه‌های چند کشتی می‌تواند سبب پایداری اکوسیستم‌های کشاورزی شود.
مواد و روش: به منظور بررسی آنالیز رشد و صفات فیزیولوژیکی گندم و جو در سیستم‌های مختلف کشت آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در سال زراعی 1394-1393 در منطقه سامان اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل: 4 سیستم مختلف کشت (کشت راهرویی گندم – بادام، کشت راهرویی جو- بادام ، تک کشتی گندم و تک کشتی جو) بود. شاخص سطح برگ، میزان ماده خشک تولیدی، میزان کلرفیل ( aوb و کلروفیل کل)، میزان پرولین، درصد پروتئین دانه و شاخص‌های رشدی اندازه-گیری شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد بیشترین میزان پرولین، جذب نور، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت جذب خالص و سرعت رشد نسبی در سیستم کشت راهرویی جو – بادام بدست آمد. بالاترین میزان ماده خشک تولیدی در واحد سطح (1424 گرم در متر مربع) مربوط به کشت راهرویی جو - درخت بادام بود، درحالیکه برای کشت متناظر گندم برابر با 934 گرم در متر مربع بدست آمد که با تک کشتی تفاوت معنی داری نداشت. کمترین میزان هم برای تک کشتی جو برابر با 700 گرم در متر مربع بود. به نظر می‌رسد جو کمتر تحت تاثیر سایه اندازی درخت و رقابت مواد مغذی در این سیستم کشت قرار می‌گیرد و میزان ماده خشک بالاتری نسبت به تک کشتی و نیز کشت راهرویی گندم را سبب می شود. بیشترین جذب نور نیز در این سیستم کشت بدست آمد.
نتیجه‌گیری:. کشت راهرویی در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری مخصوصاً در شهرستان سامان به عنوان یک روش موثر برای افزایش بهره‌وری و بازده اقتصادی باغات و گیاهانی مثل جو مهم است. بنابراین می تواند در جهت ترویج توسعه پایدار از منابع طبیعی و بهره‌برداری از فضا در واحد زمان به کار گرفته شود. از بین غلات مرسوم منطقه جو گزینه بهتری برای کشت زیر درختان بادام است و بیشترین ماده خشک تولیدی در واحد سطح مربوط به کشت راهرویی آن با درخت بادام بود. کاشت گندم در این سیستم کشت نیز اگرچه میزان تجمع ماده خشک تولیدی را تغییر نداد، اما اضافه شدن آن در باغ گامی در جهت بهره وری و جلوگیری از هدر رفت منابع است. گیاه جو از این شرایط بهره بیشتری برده و گزینه مناسب تری برای زیراشکوب درختان بادام است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of growth and physiological characteristics of wheat and barley in alley cropping systems in Saman

نویسندگان [English]

  • monir nazari
  • seyfollah fallah
چکیده [English]

Background: Plant growth involves a series of biochemical and physiological processes that interact with each other and environmental factors such as light. Evaluation of growth indices is important in analysis of factors affecting dry matter accumulation. Since more than one species grow in various farming systems such as alley cropping, so the behavior of crop next to each other could be very important. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the integration of trees and crop plants cultivated in alley-cropping System in order to maintain or even increase crop dry matter along with more efficiency of resources. It seems that multiple cropping can lead to a sustainable increase in agricultural ecosystems.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluation of growth indices and physiological traits of wheat and barley in different cropping systems, a randomized complete block design was conducted with four replication in 2015 at Saman region. Treatments were included: 4 different cultural systems (Alley cropping of wheat and barley with almond and sole cropping of them. Leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll (a, b and total), proline, protein content and growth indices were measured.
Results: Data showed that proline content, light absorption, crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate and relative growth rate were higher in barley – almonds system. The highest dry matter accumulation per unit area (1424 g/m2) also was obtained for barley – almonds system, while for the cultivation of wheat it's corresponding to 934 grams per square meter, had no significant difference with its sole cropping. The lowest rates also found for sole cropping of barley equal to 700 grams per square meter. It seems that barley less influenced with shading and competition for nutrients in this cultural system, so its dry matter accumulation will be greater compare to sole cropping and also to sole and intercropping of wheat. Highest light absorbance values obtained in this system too.
Conclusion: Alley-cropping in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari province, especially in Saman as an organized cultivation system could notice as an effective way to increase productivity, land use and economic efficiency for trees and plants, such as barley. Therefore it may promote sustainable development of natural resources and the use of modern multiple cropping practices and utilization of space used per unit of time. Barley is the best option for cultivation under almond trees among conventional cereals in the region, because of the highest dry matter in this system. Wheat cultivation in these systems although did not change dry matter accumulation, but may increase land use efficiency and productivity. So barely gain more advantages in these conditions and is more suitable option for almond trees understory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Almond
  • Alley cropping
  • Competition
  • Monoculture
  • Sustainable development
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