بررسی اثر محلول‏پاشی پتاسیم، روی و بور بر دمای سایه انداز گیاهی، صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دو رقم گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) تحت تاریخ‏های کاشت مناسب و تأخیری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشجوی دکتری

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

4 دانشگاه لرستان، دانشکده کشاورزی

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی اثر محلول‏پاشی پتاسیم، روی و بور بر دمای سایه انداز گیاهی، صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دو رقم گندم نان تحت تاریخ‏های کاشت مناسب و تأخیری، آزمایشی به‏صورت کرت‏های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 20 تیمار و سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در شهرستان رامهرمز اجرا گردید. عامل‏های آزمایشی شامل تاریخ کاشت در دو سطح مناسب (30 آبان) و تأخیری (15 دی) به‏عنوان عامل اصلی، محلول‏پاشی عناصر غذایی در پنج سطح با آب (شاهد)، پتاسیم، روی، بور و پتاسیم + روی + بور (هر کدام سه لیتر در هکتار) به‏عنوان عامل فرعی و دو رقم گندم نان پیشتاز و چمران 2 به‏عنوان عامل فرعی فرعی بودند. محلول‏ها برای محلول‏پاشی از طریق پتاسیم 21 درصد، کلات - روی 5/7 درصد و بور 5 درصد آماده گردید. صفات مورد اندازه‏گیری شامل محتوای کلروفیل برگ، محتوای نسبی آب برگ پرچم، پایداری غشای سلول، حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II (Fv/Fm) و میزان پرولین برگ بودند. با تأخیر در کاشت به‏دلیل تنش گرمای انتهایی کلیه صفات فوق غیر از میزان پرولین برگ به‏طور معنی‏داری کاهش یافت. با این حال، تأخیر در کاشت موجب افزایش دمای سایه انداز گیاهی گردید. محلول‏پاشی پتاسیم، روی و بور به‏صورت مجزا و ترکیبی اثرات زیان‏بار ناشی از تأخیر در کاشت بر صفات محتوای کلروفیل برگ، محتوای نسبی آب برگ پرچم، شاخص پایداری غشای سلول، حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II (Fv/Fm)، میزان پرولین برگ و عملکرد دانه را در هر دو رقم گندم کاهش داد. هم‏چنین، محلول‏پاشی این عناصر غذایی موجب کاهش دمای سایه انداز گیاهی ارقام گندم تحت هر دو تاریخ کاشت مناسب و تأخیری گردید. با وجود عدم اختلاف معنی‏دار در ارقام گندم پیشتاز و چمران 2 در دمای سایه انداز گیاهی، شاخص پایداری غشای سلول، حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II (Fv/Fm)، میزان پرولین برگ و عملکرد دانه، این ارقام به‏ترتیب به کاربرد مجزای روی و کاربرد تلفیقی پتاسیم + روی + بور در هر دو تاریخ کاشت مناسب و تأخیری واکنش مناسب‏تری نشان دادند. رقم چمران 2 تحت شرایط محلول‏پاشی آب (شاهد) عملکرد بیشتری را نسبت به رقم پیشتاز در هر دو تاریخ کاشت نشان داد. صفات فیزیولوژیک اندازه گیری شده ارقام گندم پیشتاز و چمران 2 در نتیجه کاربرد پتاسیم، روی و بور در هر دو تاریخ کاشت بهبود نشان دادند. به‏طور کلی می‏توان از محلول‏پاشی پتاسیم، روی و بور و کاربرد تلفیقی آنها به‏عنوان راهکار مدیریتی مناسب برای کاهش دمای سایه انداز گیاهی، بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیک و کاهش اثرات سوء تاریخ‏ کاشت تأخیری بر عملکرد گندم نان در شهرستان رامهرمز استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study effect of potassium, zinc and boron foliar application on canopy temperature, physiological traits and yield of two bread wheat cultivars under optimum and late planting dates

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamid reza eisvand 1
  • Hossein Kamaei 2
  • Mashaallah Daneshvar 3
  • Farhad Nazarian-Firouzabadi 4
1 Associate Prof. Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
2 student ph. D
3 Assistant Prof Department of Agronomy and plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
4 Lorestan University
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of potassium, zinc and boron foliar application on physiological traits and yield of two bread wheat cultivars under optimum and late planting dates, An experiment was conducted as split-split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with 20 treatments and 3 replications in Ramhormoz city in farming year 2015-16. The experimental factors were included planting date in two levels: optimum (November 21) and late (January 5) as the main factor, nutrients foliar application in five levels: (water as a control, potassium, zinc, boron and combination potassium + zinc + boron (each 3 lit.h-1)) as the sub factor and two cultivars of bread wheat Pishtaz and Chamran 2 as the sub-sub factor. Solutions for foliar application were prepared by using potassium (21%), zinc-chelate (7.5%) and boron (5%). Traits measured were included leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf relative water content, cell membrane stability, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and leaf proline content. The results showed that with delay in planting all above traits except leaf proline content decreased significantly due to terminal heat stress. However, the delay in planting was increased canopy temperature. Potassium, zinc and boron foliar application separately and in combination reduced harmful effects caused by the delay in planting on the traits leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf relative water content, cell membrane stability index, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), leaf proline content and grain yield in both wheat cultivars. As well as, foliar application these nutrients reduced canopy temperature of wheat cultivars under both optimum and late planting dates. Despite the lack of significant differences in Pishtaz and Chamran 2 wheat cultivars in canopy temperature, cell membrane stability index, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), leaf proline content and grain yield, these cultivars showed a more appropriate response to the zinc separate application and potassium + zinc + boron combined application in both optimum and late planting dates, respectively. Chamran 2 cultivar under water foliar application conditions (control) indicated more yield than the Pishtaz cultivar in both planting dates. Measured physiological traits Pishtaz and Chamran 2 wheat cultivars showed improvement as a result of potassium, zinc and boron application in both planting dates. In general can be used from potassium, zinc and boron foliar application and their combined application as appropriate management strategy to reduce canopy temperature, improve physiological traits and reduce the negative effects of delay in planting date on bread wheat in Ramhormoz city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Nutrients
  • Terminal heat stress
1. Abdoli, M., Esfandiari, E., Mousavi, B., and Sadeghzadeh, B. 2014. Effects of foliar
application of zinc sulfate at different phenological stages on yield formation and grain zinc
content of bread wheat (cv. Kohdasht). Azarian. J. Agri., 1: 1. 11-17. (In Persian)
2. Ahmadi Lahijani, M.J., and Emam, Y. 2013. Response of wheat genotypes to terminal
drought stress using physiological indices. J. Crop Product. Process (JCPP)., 3: 9. 163-176.
(In Persian)
3. Ahmadi, K., Gholizadeh, H., Ebadzadeh, H.R., Fazeli, M., Hosseinpour, R., Kazemian, A.,
and Rafiei, M. 2016. Agricultural Statistics in Farming Year 2014-15., Pp: 1-174. (In
Persian)
4. Al-hakimi, A., Monneveaux, P., and Nachit, M.M. 1998. Direct and indirect selection for
drought tolerance in alien tetraploid wheat × durum wheat crosses. Euphytica., 100: 287-294.
5. Ali, S., Shah, A., Arif, M., Miraj, G., Ali, I., Sajjad, M., Farhatollah, M., Khan, Y., and
Khan, M. 2009. Enhancement of wheat grain yield components through foliar application of
zinc and boron. Sarhad. J. Agri., 25: 1. 15-19.
6. Amani, I., Fischer, R.A., and Reynolds, M.P. 1996. Canopy temperature depression
association with yield of irrigated spring wheat cultivars in a hot climate. J. Agron. Crop
Sci., 176: 119–129.
7. Aown, M., Raza, S., Saleem, M.F., Anjum, S.A., Khaliq, T., and Wahid, M.A. 2012. Foliar
application of potassium under water deficit conditions improved the growth and yield of
wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Animal. Plant Sci., 22: 2. 431-437.
8. Asgarnejad, M.R., Zarei, Gh., and Zarezadeh, A. 2015. Effects of planting date and plant
density on yield and yield components of Brassica nigra under Abarkooh climatic
conditions. J. Crop Product., 8: 183-198.
9. Asthir, B., Thapar, R., Farooq, M., and Singh Bains, N. 2012. Exogenous application of
thiourea improves the performance of late sown wheat by inducing terminal heat resistance.
Int, J. Agri and Biol., 15: 1337-1342.
10. Ayeneh, A., Van Ginkel, M., Reynolds, M.P., and Ammar, K. 2002. Comparison of leaf,
spike, peduncle and canopy temperature depression in wheat under heat stress. Field Crops
Res., 79: 2-3. 173-184.
11. Babaeian, M., Heidari, M., and Ghandari, M. 2011. Effect of drought stress and foliar
micronutrients on physiological characteristics and nutrient uptake in sunflower (Helianthus
annus L.). Iranian, J. Filed Crop Sci., 2: 4. 377-391. (In Persian)
12. Barr, H.D., and Weatherley, P.E. 1962. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique
for estimating water deficit in leaves. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 15: 1. 413–428.
13. Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P., and Teare, E.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for
water stress studies. J. Plant Soil., 39: 205-207.
14. Beltrano, J., Ronco, M.G., and Montaldi, E.R. 1999. Drought stress syndrome in wheat is
provoked by ethylene evolution imbalance and reversed by rewatering,
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or sodium benzoate. J. Plant Growth Regul., 18: 59–64.
15. Berry, J., and Björkman, O. 1980. Photosynthetic response and adaptation to temperature in
higher plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 31: 491-543.
16. Blum, A. 1988. Plant Breeding for Stress Environments. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., Pp:
72.
17. Blum, A., Shipiler, L., Golan, G., and Mayer, J. 1989. Yield stability and canopy
temperature of wheat genotypes under drought stress. Field Crops Res., 22: 289–296.
18. Caba˜nero, F.J., Martínez, V., and Carvajal, M. 2004. Does calcium determine water uptake
under saline conditions in pepper plants, or is it water flux which determines calcium uptake.
Plant Sci., 166: 443–450.
19. Cakmak, I., Wolfgang, H.P., and Bonnie, M.C. 1996. Biofortification of durum wheat with
zinc and iron. Cereal Chemistry., 87: 1. 10-20.
20. Dhyani, K., Ansari, M.V., Roa, Y., Verma, R.S., Shukla, A., and Tuteja, N. 2013.
Comparative physiological response of wheat genotypes under terminal heat stress. Plant
Signaling and Behavior., 8(6) e24564: 1-6.
21. Ghasemian, V., Ghalavand, A., Soroosh Zadeh, A., and Pirzad, A. 2010. The effect of iron,
zinc and manganese on quality and quantity of soybean seed. J. Phytol., 2: 73-79.
22. Graham, A.W., and McDonald, G.K. 2001. Effect of zinc on photosynthesis and yield of
wheat under heat stress. Proceedings of the 10th Australian Agronomy Conference 2001,
Australian Society of Agronomy. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
23. Jahanbin, Sh., Vafapour, M., Yadavi, A., and Behzadi, Y. 2015. Assessment of growth and
some characteristics of wheat cultivar of Alvand under deficit irrigation and foliar
application of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate. J. Sustain Agri. Product Sci., 25: 3. 103-
118. (In Persian)
24. Jalal Kamali, M.R., and Duveiller, E. 2008. Wheat Production and Research in Iran: A
Success Story. In International Symposium on Wheat Yield Potential, Challenges to
International Wheat Breeding. Mexico, D.F. CIMMYT.
25. Karmollachaab, A., and Gharineh, M.H. 2013. Effect of zinc element on growth, yield
components and some physiological characteristics of maize under NaCl salinity stress.
Iranian J. Field Crops Res., 11: 3. 446-453. (In Persian)
26. Khan, M.A., Fuller, M.P., and Baluch, F.S. 2008. Effect of Soil Applied Zinc Sulphate on
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grown on a Calcareous Soil in Pakistan. Cereal Res.
Communications., 36: 4. 571–582.
27. Lee, D.G., Ahsan, N., Lee, S.H., and Kang, K.Y. 2005. A proteomic approach in analyzing
heat-responsive proteins in rice leaves. Proteomics., 7: 3369-3383.
28. Lu, C.M., and Zhang, J.H. 2000: Heat-induced multiple effects on PSII in wheat plants. J.
Plant Physiol., 156: 259-265.
29. Lutts, S., Kinet, J.M., and Bouharmont, J. 1996. NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice
(Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. J. Ann. Bot., 78: 389-398.
30. Mansouri, H., and Hosseinpour, S. 2015. The parent specialized company and government
commercial of Iran. Cereal Research Centre. Int. Grains Council., Pp: 97-93. (In Persian)
31. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New
York.
32. Mengel, K., and Kirkby, E.A. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. 5th ed. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht.
33. Modhej, A., and Fathi, Gh. 2008. Wheat Physiology. Islamic Azad University Publication
(Shushtar branch)., 317p. (In Persian)
34. Modhej, A., Lak, Sh., Naderi, A., Emam, Y., and Nour Mohammadi, Gh. 2011. Relationship
between canopy temperature and leaf chlorophyll content with grain yield of wheat at
different levels of nitrogen and heat stress conditions after pollination. Iranian J. Field Crops
Res., 8: 6. 946-955. (In Persian)
35. Moeinian, M.R., Zargari, K., and Hassanpour, J. 2011. Effect of boron foliar spraying
application on quality characteristics and growth parameters of wheat grain under drought
stress. American-Eurasian J. Agri. Enviro. Sci., 10: 4. 593-599.
36. Mohammadi, M. 2012. Effects of kernel weight and sourcelimitation on wheat grain yield
under heat stress. African J. Bio., 11: 12. 2931-2937.
37. Molassiotis, A., Sotiropoulos, T., Tanou, G., Diamantidis, G., and Therios, I. 2006. Boroninduced
oxidative damage and antioxidant and nucleolytic responses in shoot tips culture of
the apple rootstock EM9 (Malus domestica Borkh). J. Environ. Exp Bot., 56: 54-62.
38. Mousavi, S.R., Galavi, M., and Ahmadvand, G. 2007. Effect of Zinc and manganese foliar
application on yield, quality and enrichment on potato. Asian J. Plant Sci., 6: 1. 1256-1260.
39. Posmyk, M.M., and Janas, K.M. 2007. Effects of seed hydropriming in presence of
exogenous proline on chilling injury limitation in Vigna radiata L. seedlings. Acta physiol.
Plant., 29: 509-517.
40. Raza, S.H., Ashraf, M., and Athar, H.R. 2007. Glycinebetaine-induced modulation of
antioxidant enzyme activities and ion accumulation in two wheat cultivars differing in salt
tolerance. Environ Exp. Bot., 60: 368-376.
41. Raza, M.A.S., Saleem, M.F., Shah, G.M., Jamil, M., and Khan, I.H. 2013. Potassium applied
under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.). J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutri., 13: 1. 175-185.
42. Reynolds, M.P., Balota, M., Delgado, M.I.B., Amani, I., and Fischer, R.A. 1994.
Physiological and Morphological traits associated with spring wheat yield under hot,
irrigated conditions. Aust. J. plant physiol., 21: 17-30.
43. Sannada, Y., Ueda, H., Kuribayashi, K., Andoh, T., Hayashi, F., Tamai, N., and Wada, K.
1995. Novel light-dark change of proline levels in halophyte (Mesembryanthemum
crystallinum L.) and glycophytes (Hordeum vulaare L. and Triticum aestivum L.) leaves and
roots under salt stress. Plant Cell Physiol., 36: 6. 965-970.
44. Tabatabaei, S.J. 2013. Principles of Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Tabriz University Press., Pp:
544. (In Persian)
45. Thalooth, A.T., El-Zeiny, H.A., and Saad, A.O.M. 1990. Application of potassium fertilizer
for increasing salt tolerance of broad bean (Viciafaba). Bulletin of Egypt Soc. Physiol Sci.,
10: 181-193.
46. VanKooten, O., and Snel, J.F.H. 1990. The use of chlorophyll fluorescence nomenclature in
plant stress physiology. Photo. Res., 25: 3. 147-150.
47. Wahid, A., Gelani, S., Ashraf, M., and Foolad, M.R. 2007. Heat tolerance in plants: An
overview. Environ and Experimental Bot., 61: 199-223.
48. Wang, J.M., Zhao, H., Huang, D., and Wang, Z. 2012. Different increases in maize and
wheat grain zinc concentrations caused by soil and foliar applications of zinc in Loess
Plateau, China. Field Crops Res., 135: 1. 89-96.
49. Waraich, E.A., Ahmad, R., Halim, A., and Aziz, T. 2012. Alleviation of temperature stress
by nutrient management in crop plants: a review. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutri., 12: 2. 221-244.
50. Weckx, J., Vangronsveld, J., and Poucke, M. 1989. Effect of paraquat on ethylene
biosynthesis by intact green Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. J. Physiol. Plant., 75: 340–345.
51. Xu, P.L., Guo, Y.K., Bai, J.G., Shang, L., and Wang, X.J. 2008. Effects of long-term chilling
on ultrastructure and antioxidant activity in leaves of two cucumber cultivars under low
light. J. Physiol. Plant., 132: 467-478.
52. Yadavi, A.R., Saeidi Aboueshaghi, R., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., and Balouchi, H. 2014.
Effect of micronutrients foliar application on grain qualitative characteristics and some
physiological traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under drought stress. Indian J.
Fundamental and Applied Life Sci. ISSN., 4: 4. 124-131.
53. Zain, N.A.M., and Ismail, M.Z. 2016. Effects of potassium rates and types on growth, leaf
gas exchange and biochemical changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted under cyclic water
stress. J. Agri Water Manag., 164: 83-90.
54. Zain, M., Khan, I., Khan Qadri, R.W., Ashraf, U., Hussain, S., Minhas, S., Siddique, A.,
Muzammil Jahangir, M., and Bashir, M. 2015. Foliar application of micronutrients enhances
wheat growth, yield and related attributes. American J. Plant Sci., 6: 7. 864-869.
55. Zare, M., Zadehbagheri, M., and Azarpanah, A. 2013. Influence of potassium and boron on
some traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Darab 2). Int. J. Biotechnol., 2: 141-153.
56. Zhao, Ai-Qing. 2011. Combined effect of iron and zinc on micronutrient levels in wheat
(Triticum aestivum L.). J. Environ Bio., 32: 2. 235-239.