واکنش ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گلرنگ (.Carthamus tinctoriuos L) به محلول پاشی نانو اکسید آهن در شرایط کم آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تولید و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: از بین دانه‌های روغنی که با شرایط آب و هوایی ایران سازگاری خوبی دارند، گلرنگ به عنوان یک گیاه مقاوم به خشکی و شوری و همچنین به علت دارا بودن ارقام مختلف بهاره و پاییزه جایگاه خاصی دارد. تنش‌های محیطی از عوامل اصلی کاهنده رشد و نمو و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی به شمار می‌آیند. از میان تنش‌های محیطی، تنش کم آبی از عمده‌ترین خطرات برای تولید موفق محصولات زراعی در ایران و جهان است. یکی از مهم‌ترین کاربردهای فناوری نانو در زمینه‌های مختلف کشاورزی خصوصاً در بخش آب و خاک، استفاده از نانو کودها برای تغذیه گیاهان می‌باشد. عنصر آهن یکی از عناصر ضروری کم مصرف برای تغذیه گیاه است. در شرایط کمبود آهن، تعداد رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتزی از جمله مقدار کلروفیل برگ کاهش می‌یابد.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور ارزیابی اثر محلول پاشی نانو اکسید آهن بر عملکرد و برخی از صفات مهم زراعی ژنوتیپ‌های گلرنگ در شرایط تنش کم آبی، پژوهشی به صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار در سال 1395 در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره) انجام شد. فاکتورهای اصلی شامل آبیاری در دو سطح (آبیاری کامل و تنش آبی در مرحله گل‌دهی) و محلول‌پاشی نانو اکسید آهن در دو سطح (مصرف نانو اکسید آهن و عدم کاربرد آن) و فاکتور فرعی نیز شامل 10 ژنوتیپ گلرنگ (به نام‌های گل‌مهر، پدیده، گلدشت، صفه، مکزیکی 88، سینا، مکزیکی 11، محلی اصفهان، فرامان و کوسه) بودند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر آبیاری بر ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد دانه در غوزه، تعداد غوزه در گیاه و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار شد. اثرات متقابل همه عامل‌ها نیز بر صفات ارتفاع گیاه، قطر ساقه اصلی، تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی، تعداد دانه در غوزه، تعداد غوزه در گیاه و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. ژنوتیپ مکزیکی 88 بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه را در شرایط بدون تنش و اعمال نانو اکسید آهن داشت (5/499 گرم در متر مربع). بالاترین تعداد غوزه در گیاه در ژنوتیپ سینا (با میانگین 22) در شرایط بدون تنش و اعمال نانو اکسید آهن مشاهده گردید. در شرایط بدون تنش و اعمال نانو اکسید آهن، ژنوتیپ سینا بالاترین ارتفاع گیاه را داشت (33/74 سانتیمتر) که با ژنوتیپ‌های کوسه، صفه، گل‌مهر و محلی اصفهان (به ترتیب 6/73، 43/71، 2/69 و 5/68 سانتیمتر) اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. اثر کود تنها بر صفت تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی معنی‌دار بود. ژنوتیپ مکزیکی 88 بیشترین تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی را در شرایط تنش و اعمال نانو اکسید آهن داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: در این پژوهش مشخص گردید که ژنوتیپ‌های مکزیکی 88 و کوسه از نظر بیشتر صفات، ژنوتیپ‌های مناسبی برای کاشت در هر دو شرایط تنش و عدم تنش بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of different genotypes of safflower (Carthamus tinctoriuos L.) to the foliar spraying of nano-iron oxide at the low irrigation conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayeh Aminian 1
  • Saman Parsamehr 2
  • Farhad Habibzadeh 1
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Among oilseeds that have a good compatibility with the climatic conditions of the Iran, safflower has a special place due to the drought and salinity resistance and also because of having the different spring and autumn varieties. Environmental stresses are the main factors reducing growth and crop yield. Among the environmental stresses, water stress is the main risks for the successful production of crops in Iran and the world. One of the most important applications of nanotechnology in various agricultural fields, especially regarding to the water and soil, is the application of nano-fertilizers to nourish plants. Iron is one the micro elements in plant nutrition. In the condition of iron deficiency, the amount of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll content decreases.
Materials and methods: To evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of nano-iron oxide on yield and some important agronomic traits of safflower genotypes at the low water stress conditions, an experiment was carried out in split factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2016 at the research farm of Imam Khomeini International University. The main factors include irrigation on two levels (full irrigation and water stress in the flowering stage) and nano-iron oxide spraying on two levels (application and non-application of nano-iron oxide) and sub-factor included 10 genotypes of safflower (Golmehr, Padideh, Goldasht, Sofeh, Mexican88, Sina, Mexican11, Isfahan mahali, Faraman and Kuseh).
Results: The effect of irrigation on plant height, seed number in boll, boll number in plant and seed yield were significant. The interactions among all factors were also significant on plant height, main stem diameter, subsidiary branches number, seed number in boll, boll number in plant and seed yield. Mexican88 genotype had the maximum seed yield (499.5 gr. m2) in the conditions of non-stress and foliar application of nano-iron oxide. The highest boll number in plant (22) was observed in the genotype Sina in non-stress conditions and foliar application of nano-iron oxide. In conditions of non-stress and applying nano-iron oxide, genotype Sina had the highest plant height (74.33 cm) and was not significantly different from Kuseh, Sofeh, Golmehr and Isfahan mahali genotypes (73.6, 71.43, 69.2 and 68.5 cm, respectively). The effect of fertilizer was significant only on the subsidiary branches number. Mexican 88 genotype had the greatest subsidiary branches number at the conditions of stress and applying nano-iron oxide.
Conclusion: The study showed that, regarding to the most traits, Mexican 88 and Kuseh genotypes were suitable for planting in both conditions of stress and non-stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water deficit stress
  • nano-iron oxide
  • safflower
  • Yield
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