بهبود جوانه‌زنی، استقرار و عملکرد گیاهان سیب‌زمینی حاصل از ریزغده‌های تیمارشده توسط بنزیل‌آمینوپورین و آبسیزیک‌اسید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه مینه سوتا

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: سیب زمینی به عنوان چهارمین گیاه زراعی مهم مطرح است. از آنجایی که تکثیر سیب زمینی غالبا به صورت رویشی و از طریق غده می باشد، لذا افزایش تولید ریزغده های بذری با کیفیت و عاری از ویروس از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. هورمون‌های گیاهی دامنه وسیعی از فرایندهای رشد و تشکیل غده در سیب‌زمینی را کنترل می‌کنند. با توجه به کوچک و ضعیف بودن ریزغده ها و مشکلات اسقرار بوته ها در شرایط مزرعه، پژوهش های بیشتر جهت بهبود استقرار و عملکرد بوته ها ضروری به نظر می رسد. بنابراین، این پژوهش به منظور بررسی امکان بهبود جوانه‌زنی ریزغده‌ها و استقرار گیاهچه دو رقم ریزغده سیب‌زمینی (آگریا و فونتانه) توسط کاربرد تنظیم کننده های رشد (بنزیل آمینوپورین- BAP و آبسیزیک اسید- ABA) انجام پذیرفت.
مواد و روش ها: این آزمایش در دو مرحله‌ در دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد طی سال‌های 94-1393 اجرا شد. در مرحله اول، محلول‌پاشی گیاهان مادری در دو مرحله غده‌دهی و استولن‌دهی توسط تنظیم‌کننده‌های‌رشد (BAP، ABA و BAP+ABA، 50 میکرو مولار) در شرایط کنترل شده انجام گرفت. در مرحله دوم، غده‌های حاصل از مرحله اول از لحاظ ویژگی‌های جوانه‌زنی، استقرار و عملکرد در شرایط مزرعه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. آزمایش اول به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و آزمایش دوم به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی انجام پذیرفت. ویژگی های از قبیل تعداد جوانه در ریزغده، طول جوانه ، روز تا ظهور گیاهچه، درصد ظهور گیاهچه، تعداد ساقه در بوته، ویژگی های مورفولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.
یافته ها: کاربرد BAP در مرحله غده‌دهی باعث افزایش طول جوانه‌ها به میزان 51 و 59 درصد به ترتیب در رقم آگریا و فونتانه در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد شد. همچنین، کوتاه‌ترین روز تا ظهور گیاهچه در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد در این تیمار مشاهده شد. رابطه خطی معنی‌داری بین طول جوانه و روز تا ظهور گیاهچه (88/0=R2) مشاهده شد. درصد ظهور گیاهچه و تعداد بوته مستقرشده با کاربرد BAP یا ABA افزایش یافتند، اما تأثیر تیمارهای مختلف بر رقم‌ها متفاوت بود. بیشترین درصد ظهور گیاهچه در تیمار کاربرد ABA در مرحله استولن دهی ثبت گردید که به‌طور میانگین 39 درصد بیش از گیاهان شاهد بود. همچنین، رقم فونتانه درصد ظهور گیاهچه (15 درصد) بیشتر از آگریا داشت. در رقم آگریا کاربرد BAP+ABA در مرحله غده‌دهی باعث افزایش تعداد جوانه ها به میزان 40 درصد در مقایسه با گیاهان شاهد شد، درحالی‌که بیشترین تعداد جوانه در غده در رقم فونتانه در تیمار BAP در مرحله غده‌دهی مشاهده شد که 38 درصد بیش از گیاهان شاهد بود. رابطه خطی معنی‌داری بین تعداد جوانه روی غده مادری و تعداد غده تولیدی در نسل بعد (53/0=R2) مشاهده شد. در هر دو رقم، گیاهان تیمارBAP+ABA در مرحله غده‌دهی بیشترین تعداد غده در بوته را تولید کردند.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج نشان‌ داد که کاربرد BAP موجب افزایش طول جوانه ها و کاهش تعداد روز تا ظهور گیاهچه شد، درحالی که، ABA باعث بهبود درصد ظهور و استقرار گیاهچه شد. ازآنجایی‌که رشد جوانه‌ها تا حد زیادی متکی به غده مادری است، به نظر می‌رسد که هر دوی BAP و ABA موجب بهبود قدرت مقصدهای فیزیولوژیک یعنی غده‌ها شده و غده‌های قوی‌تر انرژی بیشتری برای حمایت جوانه‌ها در مراحل بعدی رشد در مزرعه را فراهم می‌کنند. همچنین، به نظر می رسد که کاربرد تنظیم کننده های رشد موجب افزایش تعداد جوانه روی غده ها شده که به نوبه خود منجر به تولید تعداد ساقه بیشتر و در نهایت، موجب افزایش تعداد غده می شود، هرچند که این اثرات بین رقم ها متفاوت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sprouting, plant establishment, and yield improvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber cultivars by foliar application of benzylaminopurine and abscisic acid

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Nezami 1
  • Jafar Nabati 1
  • John Erwin 2
چکیده [English]

Backgrounds and objectives: Potato is the fourth important crop worldwide. Since potato is mainly propagated vegetatively via tubers, increasing production of high quality and virus free seed potato is of great importance. Phyto-hormones regulate a wide range of processes and tuberization in potato. Due to small size and weakness of minitubers and some difficulties in plantlets establishment in the field, more studies are needed to improve plant establishment and productivity of minitubers under such conditions. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of improving sprouting and plantlet establishment of potato minituber cultivars (Agria and Fontane) using plant growth regulators (6-benzylaminopurine- BAP, and abscisic acid- ABA).
Materials and Methods: A two-step experiment was carried out at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2014-15. In the first experiment, foliar treatment of mother plants at stolonization or tuberization stages using plant growth regulators (BAP, ABA, and BAP+ABA, 50 µM) under controlled conditions was performed. In the second experiment, progeny minitubers were compared in terms of sprouting, plantlets establishment, and yield under field conditions. Factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design and complete block design were used for the first and second experiments, respectively. Number of sprouts per minituber, length of sprouts, day to emergence, emergence percentage, number of stems per plant, morphological traits, yield, and yield component were evaluated.
Results: Day to emergence tended to decrease with an increase in sprout length. In both cultivars, BAP application at tuberization stage increased sprout length compared with the untreated control plants. The number of established plantlets and percentage of emergence were enhanced by treating plants using BAP or ABA compared with control plants, but the effects were different on the cultivars. The greatest emergence percentage observed in ABA-treated plants at stolonization stage, which was 39% more than the control. In addition, Fontane showed greater emergence percentage (15 %) than Agria. BAP+ABA application at tuberization stage advanced the number of sprouts in Agria, whereas, the most number of sprouts in Fontane recorded when BAP applied at tuberization stage. Good linear relationship was observed between sprout length and day to emergence (R2=0.88) and between the number of sprouts on minitubers and the number of tubers in the next generation (R2=0.53). Regardless to the cultivar, application of BAP+ABA at tuberization stage increased the number of tubers per plant.
Conclusion: The results indicating that application of BAP resulted in increasing the number of sprouts and shortened the days to emergence, whereas, ABA improved emergence parentage and plantlet establishment of the both cultivars. It seems that both BAP and ABA could be effectively used for improving sink strength for better supporting the sprouts growth under field conditions. In addition, it seems tha application of PGRs increase the number of sprouts per tuber which resulte in producing greater number of stems, hence, enhance the number of tubers per plant, however, the effects are different between cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Cytokinin"
  • "ِDays to emergence"
  • "Sprout Length"
  • "Plant Growth Regulators"
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