تجمع و تخصیص تسهیم فسفر و ماده‌خشک تحت تأثیر مقدار فسفر کودی و مایه‌زنی با باکتری استرپتومایسس در گندم و جو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 هیات علمی

3 دانشجوی دکتری

چکیده

اطلاعات مربوط به غلظت و تجمع فسفر در مادۀ خشک گیاهی و ضرایب تخصیص آن به اندام‌های مختلف گیاه می‌تواند به بهبود تغذیۀ فسفری گیاهان زراعی و افزایش کارآیی استفاده از کودهای فسفره کمک کند. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مایه‌زنی با باکتری Streptomyces sp. و مقدار فسفر کودی (صفر، 20، 40، 60 و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار) بر تجمع و تسهیم فسفر و ماده‌خشک در دو گیاه گندم (رقم مروارید) و جو (رقم صحرا)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار به‌صورت گلدانی در فضای باز در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی گرگان اجرا شد. مقدار فسفر قابل جذب خاک مورد استفاده در آزمایش برابر 8/5 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم بود. نتایج حاکی از تأثیر معنی‌دار مقدار فسفر کودی بر تجمع ماده خشک، غلظت فسفر و مقدار فسفر تجمع یافته در تمام اندام‌های گیاه (P=0.01) بود. مایه‌زنی نیز به‌طور معنی‌داری بر تجمع ماده خشک در تمام اندام‌های گیاه به‌استثنای دانه و تجمع فسفر در همۀ آن‌ها به‌جز ساقه تأثیر گذاشت اما تأثیر معنی‌داری بر غلظت فسفر بخش‌های مختلف بوته به استثنای برگ و ریشه نداشت. در نتیجه، چنین استنباط می‌شود که مقدار فسفر کودی از طریق تغییر مقدار ماده خشک و غلظت فسفر، اما مایه‌زنی، بیشتر از طریق تغییر مقدار ماده خشک بر تجمع فسفر تأثیر گذاشته است. همچنین، یافته‌های این مطالعه حاکی از ثبات بسیار زیاد ضرایب تخصیص ماده خشک و فسفر به بخش‌های مختلف بوته در مقایسه با تجمع ماده خشک و فسفر و غلظت فسفر بود. غلظت فسفر در شرایط عدم مصرف فسفر کودی در کل بوته (بخش هوایی+ریشه) 29/2 و در دانه 86/3 گرم در کیلوگرم و در تیمار مصرف 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار در کل بوته 89/3و در دانه 00/6 گرم در کیلوگرم بود. همچنین، مقدار فسفر تجمع یافته در شاهد، در دانه گندم و جو به‌ترتیب 18/2 و 68/2 و در کل بوته آن‌ها 88/4 و 15/5 میلی‌گرم برآورد گردید. با افزایش مقدار فسفر کودی، مقدار فسفر تجمع یافته در بخش‌های مختلف بوته به‌صورت خطی اما با شیب‌های متفاوت افزایش یافته و در تیمار 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار در دانه گندم و جو به‌ترتیب به 98/6 و 08/9، و در کل بوته به 48/14و 75/14 میلی‌گرم رسید. این نتایج نشان می‌دهد که جذب فسفر در تیمار 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار در گندم 197 درصد و در جو 186 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافته است. در هر دو گیاه مورد بررسی، در تمام مقادیر فسفر کودی، ترتیب اندام‌ها بر اساس مقدار فسفر تجمع یافته به‌صورت ریشه< برگ< ساقه< دانه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phosphorus and dry matter accumulation and partitioning as affected by fertilizer phosphorus rate and inoculation by phosphate solubilizing bacteria in wheat and barley

نویسنده [English]

  • toktam khosravian 1
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Information on the concentration and accumulation of phosphorus (P) in the plant dry matter (DM) and the coefficients of its allocation to different plant parts can help improve the P nutrition of crops and increase the efficiency of P fertilizers. In order to investigate the effect of inoculation with Streptomyces sp. bacteria and fertilizer P rate (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg P ha) on the P and DM accumulation and partitioning in wheat (cultivar Morvarid) and barley (cultivar Sahara), a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences during 2014-2015 growing season. The amount of soil available P was 5.8 mg kg-1. Results showed that the effects of fertilizer P rate on DM accumulation, the P concentration and accumulation in all plant parts was significant (P = 0.01), statistically. Inoculation also influenced the DM accumulation in all parts except seeds, and P accumulation in all of them except the stem, but its effect on the P concentration in different parts of plant with the exception of leaf and root was not significant. As a result, it can be deduced that the rate of fertilizer phosphorus through both DM accumulation and P concentration, and inoculation only via DM accumulation affects the P accumulation. Also, the findings of this study showed a very high stability of allocation coefficients of DM and P to different parts of plant compared to DM and P accumulation and P concentration. P concentrations in the whole plant and grain in control (without P fertilizer) were 2.29 and 3.86 g P kg-1, and in the treatment of 80 kg P ha-1 were 3.89 and 6.00 g P kg-1. Also, the amount of accumulated P in a grain was 2.18 and 2.68 mg and in whole plant (shoot+ root) was 4.88 and 5.15 mg in wheat and barley, respectively. By increasing the rate of P fertilizer, accumulated phosphorus in all parts of the plant was increased linearly with different slopes, and reached to 6.98 and 9.08 at grain and 14.48 and 14.75 mg at whole plant of wheat and barley, respectively, when 80 kg P ha-1 was applied. The results showed a 197 and 186 percent increase in P uptake in wheat and barley, respectively, in the treatment of 80 kg P ha-1 compared to control. In both crops, at all levels of P fertilizer, the plant organs based on the amount of P accumulates were as seed > stem > leaf> root.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain
  • leaf
  • phosphorus concentration
  • Root
  • stem
1.Afzal, A., Ashraf, M., Asad, S.A., and Farooq, M. 2005. Effect of phosphate solubilizing
microorganisms on phosphorus uptake, yield and yield traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
in rainfed area. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 7: 207-209.
2.Amiri, M.B., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R., Fallahi, J., and FallahPoor, F. 2009.
Effects of biofertilizers on seedling growth of different cultivars of wheat (Chamran,
Sayones and Gaskogen). The First National Symposium on Agriculture and Sustainable
Development. Opportunities and Future Challenges. Islamic Azad Univ. Shiraz. (In Persian)
3.Arduini, I., Masoni, A., Ercoli, L., and Mariotti, M. 2006. Grain yield, and dry matter and
nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in durum wheat as affected by variety and seeding
rate. Eur. J. Agron., 25: 309–318.
4.Arpana, N., Kumar, S.D., and Prasad, T.N. 2002. Effect of seed inoculation, fertility and
irrigation on uptake of major nutrients and soil fertility status after harvest of late sown
lentil. J. Appl. Biol., 12: 23-26.
5.Bélanger, G., Ziadi, N., Pageau, D., Grant, C., Högnäsbacka, M., Virkajärvi, P., Hu, Z., Lu, J.,
Lafond, J., and Nyiraneza, J. 2015. A model of critical phosphorus concentration in the shoot
biomass of wheat. Agron. J., 107: 963-970.
6.Dordas, C. 2009. Dry matter, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, partitioning and
remobilization as affected by N and P fertilization and source–sink relations. Eur. J. Agron.,
30: 129-139.
7.Dordas, C.A., and Sioulas, C. 2009. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning, and
retranslocation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilization.
Field Crop Res., 110: 35-43.
8.Ehteshami, S.M.R., Pourebrahimil, M., and Khavazi, K. 2013. Effect of Pseudomonas
fluorescens strain 103 integrated with phosphorus fertilizer on nutrients concentration and
biological yield of two barley cultivars in greenhouse conditions. J. Sci. Technol.
Greenhouse Culture., 16: 15-26. (In Persian)
9.Fageria, N.K. 2009. The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants. CRP Press. 430p.
10.Ghazanshahi, J. 2006. Plant and Soil Analysis. Publ. Aiizh. 272p.
11.Ghorbani-Nasrabadi1, R., Aghaz Nashtifani, P., and Zebarjadi, M. 2014. Evaluation of soil
Streptomyces sp. plant growth promotion traits and potential application in enhancing early
maize growth and P uptake. J. Soil Mang. Suttain. Prod., 4: 195-213. (In Persian)
12.Hamidi, A., AsgharZadeh, A., Choukan, R., DehghanShoar, M., Ghalavand, A., and
Malakuti, M. J. 2010. The effect of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) on dry matter
partitioning and growth characteristics of corn in a greenhouse. Iran J. Soil Res., 24: 55-67.
(In Persian)
13.Kaur, G., and Reddy, M.S. 2015. Effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, rock phosphate
and chemical fertilizers on maize-wheat cropping cycle and economics. Pedosphere. 25:
428–437.
14.Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A., and Wani, P.A. 2007. Role of phosphate-solubilizing microorganism
in sustainable agriculture-a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev., 27: 29-43.
15.Lavakush, Y.J., Verma, J.P., Jaiswal, D.K., and Kumar, A. 2014. Evaluation of PGPR and
different concentration of phosphorus level on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of
rice (Oryza sativa). Ecol. Eng., 62: 123-128
16.Mehrvarz, S., Chaichi, M.R., and Alikhani, H.A. 2008. Effects of phosphate solubilizing
microorganisms and phosphorus chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of barely
(Hordeum vulgare L.). Am. Euras. Agr. Envarion. Sci., 3: 822-828
17.Mirahmadi, M., Malakuti, M.J., and Khavazi, K. 2011. Effect of PSB on P uptake by corn in
alkaline soils. 12thIranian Soil Science Congress. Univ. Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. (In Persian)
18.Mirzashahi, K. 2012. The effect of phosphorus fertilizer Consumption Management on grain
yield and P Absorption in the north of Khuzestan. Crop Physiol. J., 4: 99-114. (In Persian)
19.Mohammadi, A., Asghari, H.R., Abasdokht, H., and Rahimi, M. 2011. Effect of Mycorrhiza
and Bavar 2 on root colonization and some features of Pea (Hashem cultivar) at various
levels of phosphorus fertilization. 1stNational Conference on Modern Agricultural Sciences
and Technologies. Univ. Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. (In Persian)
20.Muchow, R.C. 1988. Effect of nitrogen supply on the comparative productivity of maize and
sorghum in a semi-arid tropical environment. I. Leaf growth and leaf nitrogen. Field Crops
Res., 18: 1–16.
21.Rastin, S. 2005. Biofertilizers, management and soil health. In. Khavazi, K., AsadiRahmani,
H., and Malakuti, M.J. (Eds.). The Need for Industrial Production of Biofertilizers in the
Country. Publ. Sana. Pp: 12-14. (In Persian)
22.Rodrguez, H., and Fraga, R. 1999. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant
growth promotion. Biotecnol. Adv., 17: 319-339.
23.Sarikhani, M.R., Aliasgharzad, N., and Malboobi, M.A. 2013. Improvement of wheat
phosphorus nutrition using phosphate solubilizing bacteria. J. Soil Manag. Sustain. Prod., 3:
39-57. (In Persian)
24.Soltani, A. 2006. Application of SAS in Statistical Analysis. Jihad Univ. Mashhad. Pp: 182.
25.Sundara, B., Natarajan, V., and Hari, K. 2002. Influence of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria
on the changes in soil available phosphorus and sugarcane and sugar yields. Field Crops
Res., 77: 43-49.
26.Tohidinia, M.A., Mazaheri, D., Bagher-Hosseini, S.M., and Madani, H. 2014. Effect of
biofertilizer Barvar-2 and chemical phosphorus fertilizer application on kernel yield and
yield components of maize (Zea mays cv. SC704). Iran. J. Crop Sci., 15: 295-307. (In
Persian)
27.Zabihi, H.R., Savaghebi, G.R., Khavazi, K., Ganjali, A., and Miransari, M. 2009. Response
of wheat growth and yield to application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at various
levels of phosphorus fertilization. Iran. J.Field Crops Res., 7: 41-51. (In Persian)
28.Zabihi, H.R., Savaghebi, G.R., Khavazi, K., Ganjali, A., and Miransari, M. 2011.
Pseudomonas bacteria and phosphorous fertilization, affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
yield and P uptake under greenhouse and field conditions. Acta. Physiol. Plant., 33: 145-152.
29.Zadoks, J.C., Chang, T.T., and Konzak, C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of
cereals. Weed Res., 14: 415-421