بررسی تأثیر کاربرد میکوریزا و پلیمر سوپر جاذب بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک ریشه و عملکرد نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی-دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشکاه لرستان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: گنجاندن بقولات در تناوب و کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی مورد توجه محققان و کارشناسان است. چون می‌تواند نقش مهمی در باروری و حفظ فعالیت‌های بیولوژیک خاک، افزایش کیفیت محصولات کشاورزی و سلامت اکوسیستم داشته باشد. اهمیت استفاده از پلیمر سوپر جاذب و قارچ میکوریزا در کشت دیم به این دلیل است که سبب بهبود حفظ آب و تأمین عناصر برای گیاه می‌شوند.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در روستای زالی شهرستان دلفان استان لرستان اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل رقم (’آرمان‘ و ’آزاد‘ به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی، کاربرد پلیمر سوپر جاذب (صفر (شاهد)، 100و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و مصرف میکوریزا (صفر (شاهد) و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند.
یافته‌ها: ارقام از نظر صفات مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری باهم نداشتند. مصرف 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب در مقایسه با شاهد سبب افزایش عملکرد بیولوژیک (9/5%)، عملکرد دانه (4/9 %)، طول ریشه (5/18%)، تعداد گره ریشه (7/19%) و حجم ریشه (9/21%) شد. نتایج نشان داد میکوریزا نیز عملکرد بیولوژیک (7/4 %)، عملکرد دانه (4%)، طول ریشه (8/12%)، وزن خشک ریشه (3/8 %) و حجم ریشه (7/11%) را افزایش داد. اثر متقابل سوپر جاذب و میکوریزا بر عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه، طول ریشه و تعداد گره‌های ریشه معنی‌دار شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: کاربرد پلیمر سوپر جاذب و میکوریزا هر یک به تنهایی سبب بهبود صفات ریشه و عملکرد دانه شد اما کاربرد همزمان این دو عامل اثر بیشتری بر عملکرد و صفات مورد بررسی داشت. با توجه به کمبود منابع آب در کشور، کاربرد همزمان میکوریزا و پلیمر سوپر جاذب در شرایط کشت دیم نخود می‌تواند علاوه بر بهبود عملکرد، بستر را برای دستیابی به کشاورزی ارگانیک و پایداری سیستم‌های کشاورزی و سلامت بیشتر محیط زیست مهیا سازد.
یافته‌ها: ارقام از نظر صفات مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری باهم نداشتند. مصرف 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب در مقایسه با شاهد سبب افزایش عملکرد بیولوژیک (9/5%)، عملکرد دانه (4/9 %)، طول ریشه (5/18%)، تعداد گره ریشه (7/19%) و حجم ریشه (9/21%) شد. نتایج نشان داد میکوریزا نیز عملکرد بیولوژیک (7/4 %)، عملکرد دانه (4%)، طول ریشه (8/12%)، وزن خشک ریشه (3/8 %) و حجم ریشه (7/11%) را افزایش داد. اثر متقابل سوپر جاذب و میکوریزا بر عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه، طول ریشه و تعداد گره‌های ریشه معنی‌دار شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: کاربرد پلیمر سوپر جاذب و میکوریزا هر یک به تنهایی سبب بهبود صفات ریشه و عملکرد دانه شد اما کاربرد همزمان این دو عامل اثر بیشتری بر عملکرد و صفات مورد بررسی داشت. با توجه به کمبود منابع آب در کشور، کاربرد همزمان میکوریزا و پلیمر سوپر جاذب در شرایط کشت دیم نخود می‌تواند علاوه بر بهبود عملکرد، بستر را برای دستیابی به کشاورزی ارگانیک و پایداری سیستم‌های کشاورزی و سلامت بیشتر محیط زیست مهیا سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent on root morphological characteristics and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rain-fed conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • Kolsoom Farhadian Asgarabadi 2
چکیده [English]

Background and aim: inclusion of legumes in rotation to reduce chemical fertilizers has been of interest. The use of biological resources instead of chemicals can play an important role in maintaining fertility and soil biological activities; also increased the quality of agricultural products and ecosystem health. Applying mycorrhiza and superabsorbent as factors of preserving water and supplying nutrients for plants are important in dry farming.
Materials and methods: The experiment was conducted in Lorestan province (Noor Abad city) as a split-factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Two different chickpea cultivars (‘Arman’ and ‘Azad’) were used as the main plot and superabsorbent polymer at three levels (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1) and mycorrhiza at two levels (0 and 200 kg ha-1) were served as the sub-plots.
Finding: Cultivars were not different according to considered traits. Using superabsorbent (200 kg/ha) increased biological yield (5.9%), grain yield (9.4%), root length (18.5%), number of nodules (19.7%) and root volume (21.9%). Results indicated that mycorrhiza application improved biological yield (4.7%), grain yield (4%), root length (12.8%), root dry weight (8.3%), and root volume (11.7%). The interaction of superabsorbent and mycorrhiza was statistically significant on biological yield, grain yield, root length, and the number of root nodules of chickpea.
Results: applying superabsorbent and mycorrhiza increased root traits and grain yield, however, when they were used together, their positive effects on the yield and root traits were more than they were applied separately. Regarding to the water resources shortage in the country, simultaneous using of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent; in addition to improving chickpea yield under rain-fed conditions, can provide bases for organic agriculture, system sustainability, finally more environment health.
Finding: Cultivars were not different according to considered traits. Using superabsorbent (200 kg/ha) increased biological yield (5.9%), grain yield (9.4%), root length (18.5%), number of nodules (19.7%) and root volume (21.9%). Results indicated that mycorrhiza application improved biological yield (4.7%), grain yield (4%), root length (12.8%), root dry weight (8.3%), and root volume (11.7%). The interaction of superabsorbent and mycorrhiza was statistically significant on biological yield, grain yield, root length, and the number of root nodules of chickpea.
Results: applying superabsorbent and mycorrhiza increased root traits and grain yield, however, when they were used together, their positive effects on the yield and root traits were more than they were applied separately. Regarding to the water resources shortage in the country, simultaneous using of mycorrhiza and superabsorbent; in addition to improving chickpea yield under rain-fed conditions, can provide bases for organic agriculture, system sustainability, finally more environment health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mycorrhiza
  • Superabsorbent
  • Root
  • Chickpea
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