اثر مقادیر نیتروژن و الگوی کشت مخلوط ردیفی بر کمیت و کیفیت علوفه جو (Hordeum vulgare) و نخود فرنگی (Pisum sativum) و نسبت برابری زمین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی/ دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

چکیده

سابقه و هدف
کشت مخلوط، عمل کشت دو یا چند گیاه زراعی در یک مکان و در یک زمان، یک روش قدیمی و معمول کشت گیاهان به‌منظور استفاده بیش‌تر از منابع قابل دسترس موثر بر رشد است. در تیمارهای مختلف کشت مخلوط معمولا وزن خشک علوفه، درصد ماده خشک، پروتئین خام، فیبر قابل حل در شوینده خنثی و کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در آب نسبت به کشت خالص بهبود می‌یابد. هدف از این مطالعه تعیین کمیت و کیفیت علوفه تولیدی در کشت خالص و مخلوط جو و نخود فرنگی و همچنین نسبت برابری زمین بود.
مواد و روش‌ها
آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس در سال زراعی 1391-1390 اجرا شد. عامل کشت مخلوط در پنج سطح شامل کشت خالص جو، کشت خالص نخود فرنگی، کشت مخلوط نواری یک ردیف جو و یک ردیف نخود فرنگی، کشت مخلوط نواری دو ردیف جو و دو ردیف نخود فرنگی، کشت مخلوط نواری سه ردیف جو و سه ردیف نخود فرنگی و میزان نیتروژن در چهار سطح شامل عدم مصرف و مصرف 25، 50 و 75 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار بود. تاریخ کاشت 15 آذر ماه 1390 و تاریخ برداشت شش اردیبهشت ماه 1391 بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل عملکرد علوفه خشک، درصد پروتئین، درصد ماده خشک قابل هضم، درصد کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در آب، درصد فیبر غیر قابل ‌حل در شوینده‎های اسیدی، درصد خاکستر و عملکرد پروتئین بود. برای تجزیة آماری داده‌ها از نرم‌افزار Ver. 9.1.3 SAS و برای مقایسة میانگین‌ها از آزمون حداقل تفاوت معنی‌دار (LSD) در سطح احتمال پنج درصد استفاده شد.
یافته‎ها
نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد علوفه خشک در سطح یک درصد تحت تأثیر کشت مخلوط، نیتروژن و کشت مخلوط × نیتروژن قرار گرفت. اثر کشت مخلوط بر درصد پروتئین، درصد ماده خشک قابل هضم، درصد کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در آب، درصد فیبر غیر قابل‌ حل در شوینده‎های اسیدی، درصد خاکستر و عملکرد پروتئین در سطح یک درصد معنی‌دار شد. درصد پروتئین و خاکستر و همچنین عملکرد پروتئین تحت تأثیر مصرف نیتروژن قرار گرفت. حداکثر وزن خشک علوفه با 51/14 و 3/14 تن در هکتار مربوط به تیمار کشت خالص جو با مصرف 75 و 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار و حداقل آن با 76/3 تن در هکتار مربوط به تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی بدون مصرف نیتروزن بود. تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی دارای بیش‌ترین درصد پروتئین، درصد ماده خشک قابل هضم، درصد کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در آب و درصد خاکستر و کم‌ترین درصد فیبر غیرقابل‌حل در شوینده‎های اسیدی بود. عملکرد پروتئین در تیمار کشت خالص جو بیش از بقیه تیمارها بود. مصرف نیتروژن باعث افزایش درصد پروتئین، درصد خاکستر و عملکرد پروتئین شد. نسبت برابری زمین در تیمارهای کشت مخلوط کم‌تر از یک بود.
نتیجه‌گیری
تیمار کشت خالص جو همراه با مصرف نیترو ژن بهتر از تیمارهای دیگر از نظر وزن خشک علوفه بود در حالی که تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی بدون مصرف نیتروژن حداقل عملکرد را تولید کرد. تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی از نظر صفات کیفی به‎جز درصد خاکستر بهتر از کشت خالص جو و تیمارهای کشت مخلوط بود. در تمام تیمارهای کشت مخلوط نسبت برابری زمین کم‌تر از یک بود لذا، کشت مخلوط برتری بر تیمارهای کشت خالص نشان نداد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and pea (Pisum sativum) and Land Equivalent Ratio under different planting patterns and nitrogen levels

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives
Intercropping, the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time, is an old and commonly used cropping practice which aims to match efficiently crop demands to the available growth resources. Usually in intercropping treatments forage dry matter, percentage of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre content and water-soluble carbohydrates compared with sole crop. The aim of this study was determining of quantity and quality of produced forage in sole and intercropping of barley and pea and also Land Equivalent Ratio.
Matherials and Methods
This experiment was arranged as factorial based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at research field, Gonbad Kavous University during growing season of 2012- 2013. Five intercropping levels were included sole crop of barley and pea, one row of barley + one row of pea, two rows of barley + two rows of pea and three rows of barley + three rows of pea and four levels of nitrogen was 0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha. Sowing date was 6 December 2011 and harvest date was 26 April 2012. The traits was forage dry yield, percentage of crude protein, dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrates, acid detergent fiber, ash and protein yield. For analysis variance of data software of SAS Ver.9.1.3. were used and treatment mean differences were separated by the least significant difference (LSD) test at the 0.05 probability level.
Results
The results showed that the effect of intercropping, nitrogen and interaction of intercropping × nitrogen on forage dry yield were significant (α= 1%). Effect of intercropping on percentage of crude protein, dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrates, acid detergent fiber, ash and protein yield was significant (α= 1%). percentage of crude protein and ash and so protein yield were affected by nitrogen. Forage yield in sole crop of barley with consumption of 75 and 50 kg N ha-1 with 14.51 and 14.3 t ha-1 was the highest and in sole crop of pea without consumption of nitrogen with 3.76 t ha-1 was less than other treatmentst. Treatment of sole crop of pea had the highest amounts of crude protein, dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrates and ash and the lowest of acid detergent fiber. Protein yield in sole crop of barley was higher than other treatments. Nitrogen increased percentage of crude protein, percentage of ash and protein yield. Land Equivalent Ratio in intercropping treatments was less than 1.
Conclusion
Forage dry matte in sole crop of barley with consumption of nitrogen was better than other treatments whereas sole crop of pea without nitrogen consumption produced the minimum yield. All quality traits except percentage of ash in sole crop of pea was higher than sole crop of barley and intercropping treatments. Land Eqivalent Ratio in all intercropping treatments was less than 1 so, intercropping was not superior than sole crops.
Key words: Ash, Forage Yield, Land Equivalent Ratio, Protein

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ash
  • Forage Yield
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
  • Protein
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