عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Satureja khuzestanica is valuable and endemic medicinal specie that growing widely in southwest parts of Iran. This specie is rich of phenolic compound carvacrol, therefore have considerable biological activities. Satureja khuzestanica is a new medicinal plant in Iran, and little research has been done on. Thus, the present study with the aim of evaluating the response of plant to the application of biological and chemical manure was carried out.
Materials and Methods: Pot experiment was carried out in field conditions as factorial layout based on a completely randomized design with three replications in Andimeshk during 2013. Biological fertilizer as first factor in four levels (1: control, 2: mycorrhiza, 3: mixture of Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Azospirillum, 4: mixture of mycorrizha, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Azospirillum), and chemical fertilizer as second factor in three levels (1: control, 2:50-30 kg/ha N-P, 3: 100-60 kg/ha N-P) was applied. The characteristics measured were dry weight, plant height, number of branches, leaf and stem ratio, essential oil content, essential oil yield, essential oil compositions.the essential oil content was extracted using Clevenger apparatus(Water distillation). The amount and type of oil compositions were measured by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) respectively. Analysis of variance was performed by software SAS (9.1). For comparison of means, least significant difference (LSD) test (At the level of 5% probability) were used.
Results: Analysis of variance showed that the effects of biological and chemical fertilizers and biological×chemical interaction on dry weight, oil yield were significant but the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on essential oil composition was not significant. The effect of chemical fertilizer on essential oil content was significant. Mean comparison of traits showed that the mixtures of mycorrizha+bacteria had a highest dry weight (8.4 g/plant) and control has a least dry weight (4.05 g/plant).The highest and least essential oil content (2.58, 1.76 %) and oil yield (0.25, 0.1 g/plant) were observed in first (50-30 kg.ha-1 N-P) and second (100-60 kg.ha-1 N-P) levels of chemical fertilizers, respectively.
Conclusions: In general, results of this study showed that plant response to use of of mycorrhizal fungi was positive. The highest dry weight was observed in pots which treated with mycorrhizal fungi. The essential oil content, dry weight and the essential oil yield were increased by Application of fertilizers up to 50-30 kg.ha-1 N-P.
Keywords: Dry weight, Essential oil composition, Essential oil content, Essential oil yield