عنوان مقاله [English]
Biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which can use instead of chemical fertilizer in sustainable crop production. The effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria; root endophytic fungi (EF) Piriformospora indica, and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae on growth and nutrient uptake of sunflower plants grown in mixture with two clover species, Persian clover and berseem clover, were investigated at the experimental farm of Ilam agriculture center. The treatments were consisted of sunflower colonized and non-colonized by P. indica or Glomus mosseae, inoculated by phosphate solubizing bacteria (Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida), non-fertilizer soil, non-sterilized and sterilized soil, and two cropping system which consisted of mixture clover of Persian clover and brseem clover at the ration of 1:1 under sunflower canopy. Result indicated the benefits of colonization of sunflower plants with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi as well as inoculated with bacteria on increasing growth, nutrient uptake and yield compared with their non-application of sunflower. Sunflower cultivation covered with a mixture of two clovers spices achieve increased yield and shoot nitrogen and phosphorus of sunflower seeds, but no effect on shoot phosphorus, grain yield and biomass yield. According to the results, the use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, mycorrhiza and endophytic fungi and legumes cultivated under canopy cover could be a mechanism for designing sunflower farming under system with low input.