عنوان مقاله [English]
Effects of sowing date and nutrition management as organic, chemical, biological and nanotropic in Chickpea Yield
Bachground and objectives: Nano and biological fertilizers are considered as a suitable ecological strategy to increase the availability of elements for plants. Thus, in these methods, the plant was able to absorb the highest amount of nutrients which result in highest yield. Also application of Nitrogen and phosphorus Bio-fertilizers due to the prevention of water and soil pollution, it is a good alternative to chemical fertilizers and has a positive role in the stability of the system.The present study was conducted to investigate the response of chickpea (Hashem cultivar), affecting by different nutrition management as organic, chemical, biological and nanotropic and Autumn and spring sowing dates.
Matrerials and methods: The research was carried out in Research Farm of Maragheh University with Geographical coordinates 37°23' N; 46°16' E and 1485 meters above sea surface in northwest of Iran, during 2016-2017 growing season as Split-plot experiment conducted based on a randomized complete block desing with three replications. The main factor included sowing date (S1: spring sowing, S2: winter sowing) and sub factors included fertilizer treatments F0: control (no fertilizer application), F1: NPK fertilizer (20-20-20), F2:animal manure Twenty tonnes per hectare, F3: Nano-fertilizer, super-micro-structure, F4: Pre-plant bacterial inoculation with biofertilizer P (containing Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and Pseudomonas putida strain P13) and nitrogen fertilizer (Azotobacter vinelandii strain O4), F5:nano chelated zinc + iron + manganese fertilizers. Parametrs such as Plant height, Biological yield, Shoot fresh weight per plant, Shoot dry weight per plant, Number of pods per plant, Number of unfilled pod per plant, Number of grain per plant, Grain protein (%), 100-grain weight, Grain yield were evaluated.
Results: results showed that the effect of fertilizer trartments were significant on shoot fresh weight per plant, shoot dry weight per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield, biological yield, 100-seed weight, seed protein percent, seed number per plant; and the height of the plant and the number of hollow pods per plant were not significant. And bio-fertilizer increase grain yield about 14.31%. Also, the number of unfilled pods per plant was not affected by sowing date and intraction effect of fertilizer × sowing date. The effect of sowing date on plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seed yield, biological yield and number of pods per plant in spring sowing were significantly higher than winter sowing. And spring sowing increase grain yield about 27.5%. However, the number of pods per plant in both sowing dates was statistically similar. Among the measured traits, only weight of 100 grains, was affected by fertilizer effect in sowing date.
Conclusion: Our results showed that the application of Nitrogen and Phosphorus bio-fertilizers together in spring sowing date, as the best treatment, could improve vegetative growth, yield and yield components of chickpea through supplying some elements such as N and P and also other environmental sources for this plant.
Key words: Sowing date, Micro nutrients, Chemical fertilizers, Bio-fertilizers, Chickpea.