اثر تاریخ کاشت و مدیریت تغذیه آلی، شیمیایی، و نانو ریزمغذی بر عملکرد نخود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه مراغه،دانشکده کشاورزی، مراغه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی،دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: استفاده از کودهای نانو و زیستی به عنوان یک راهکار مناسب اکولوژیکی در جهت افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر برای گیاهان می‌باشد. بنابراین در این روش گیاه قادر به جذب بیشترین مقدار مواد غذایی بوده که باعث افزایش در عملکرد گیاه می‌شود. همچنین استفاده از کودهای زیستی به دلیل جلوگیری از آلودگی آب و خاک، جایگزین مناسبی برای کودهای شیمیایی بوده و نقش مثبتی در پایداری سیستم دارد. بر این اساس، این پژوهش با هدف بررسی عکس العمل گیاه نخود (رقم هاشم) به انواع مدیریت های تغذیه‌ای آلی، شیمیایی و نانوریز مغذی و تاریخ کاشت پاییزه و بهاره انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش حاضر در مزرعه‌ پژوهشی دانشگاه مراغه به مختصات 37 درجه و 23 دقیقه عرض شمالی، 46 درجه و 16 دقیقه طول شرقی و 1485 متر ارتفاع از سطح آب‌های آزاد در سال زراعی 96-95 به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی شامل تاریخ کشت (S1: کشت بهاره، S2: کشت پاییزه) و فاکتور فرعی شامل تیمارهای کودی F0: شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)، F1: کود شیمیایی NPK 20-20-20، F2: 20 تن کود دامی در هکتار ، F3: کود نانو ساختار سوپر میکرو کامل، F4: تلقیح باکتریایی پیش از کاشت بذور با کود بیولوژیک فسفره (حاوی باکتری Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 وPseudomonas putida strain P13 ) و کود بیولوژیک نیتروژنه (Azotobacter vinelandii strain O4)، F5: نانو کلاتهای روی+ آهن+ منگنز بود. و صفات ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیک، وزن‌تر شاخساره تک بوته، وزن‌خشک شاخساره تک بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد غلاف پوک در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، درصد پروتئین دانه، وزن صد دانه و عملکرد دانه مورد برسی قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: طبق نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش اثر تیمارهای کودی بر روی صفات وزن‌تر شاخساره، وزن خشک شاخساره، تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، وزن صد دانه، درصد پروتئین دانه، تعداد دانه در بوته معنی‌دار و بر روی صفت ارتفاع بوته و تعداد غلاف پوک در بوته غیرمعنیدار بود. و کود زیستی عملکرد دانه را 31/14 درصد افزایش داد. همچنین تعداد غلاف پوک در بوته تحت تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و اثر متقابل کود در تاریخ کاشت نیز قرار نگرفت. تأثیر تاریخ کاشت بر روی صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن‌تر شاخساره، وزن-خشک شاخساره، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و تعداد غلاف در بوته معنیدار و در کشت بهاره بالاتر از کشت پاییزه بود و کشت بهاره باعث افزایش 5/27 درصدی عملکرد دانه گردید. ولی صفت تعداد غلاف در بوته در هر دو کشت از لحاظ آماری در یک گروه قرار گرفت. از بین صفات اندازه‌گیری شده فقط وزن صد دانه تحت تأثیر اثر متقابل کود در تاریخ کاشت قرار گرفت.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت بهاره و همچنین تیمار کودی تلقیح باکتریایی با کود زیستی نیتروژنه و فسفره به دلیل فراهم کردن زمینه مناسب برای استفاده از منابع محیطی و عناصری مانند نیتروژن و فسفر، موجب افزایش رشد رویشی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود شده و برترین ترکیب تیماری بود.

واژگان کلیدی: تاریخ کشت، ریزمغذیها، کودهای شیمیایی، کود زیستی، نخود

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of sowing date and nutrition management as organic, chemical, biological and nanotropic in Chickpea Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Mohammadzadeh alghou 1
  • Mohsen Janmohammdi 2
  • Naser sabaghnia 3
1 M.Sc Student,University of Maragheh, Agriculture College,Maraghe, Iran
2 Associate Professor Department of Plant Production and Geneteics Agriculture College, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
3 Associate Professor Department of Plant Production and Geneteics, Agriculture College, University of Maragheh. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Effects of sowing date and nutrition management as organic, chemical, biological and nanotropic in Chickpea Yield

Abstract
Bachground and objectives: Nano and biological fertilizers are considered as a suitable ecological strategy to increase the availability of elements for plants. Thus, in these methods, the plant was able to absorb the highest amount of nutrients which result in highest yield. Also application of Nitrogen and phosphorus Bio-fertilizers due to the prevention of water and soil pollution, it is a good alternative to chemical fertilizers and has a positive role in the stability of the system.The present study was conducted to investigate the response of chickpea (Hashem cultivar), affecting by different nutrition management as organic, chemical, biological and nanotropic and Autumn and spring sowing dates.
Matrerials and methods: The research was carried out in Research Farm of Maragheh University with Geographical coordinates 37°23' N; 46°16' E and 1485 meters above sea surface in northwest of Iran, during 2016-2017 growing season as Split-plot experiment conducted based on a randomized complete block desing with three replications. The main factor included sowing date (S1: spring sowing, S2: winter sowing) and sub factors included fertilizer treatments F0: control (no fertilizer application), F1: NPK fertilizer (20-20-20), F2:animal manure Twenty tonnes per hectare, F3: Nano-fertilizer, super-micro-structure, F4: Pre-plant bacterial inoculation with biofertilizer P (containing Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and Pseudomonas putida strain P13) and nitrogen fertilizer (Azotobacter vinelandii strain O4), F5:nano chelated zinc + iron + manganese fertilizers. Parametrs such as Plant height, Biological yield, Shoot fresh weight per plant, Shoot dry weight per plant, Number of pods per plant, Number of unfilled pod per plant, Number of grain per plant, Grain protein (%), 100-grain weight, Grain yield were evaluated.
Results: results showed that the effect of fertilizer trartments were significant on shoot fresh weight per plant, shoot dry weight per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield, biological yield, 100-seed weight, seed protein percent, seed number per plant; and the height of the plant and the number of hollow pods per plant were not significant. And bio-fertilizer increase grain yield about 14.31%. Also, the number of unfilled pods per plant was not affected by sowing date and intraction effect of fertilizer × sowing date. The effect of sowing date on plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seed yield, biological yield and number of pods per plant in spring sowing were significantly higher than winter sowing. And spring sowing increase grain yield about 27.5%. However, the number of pods per plant in both sowing dates was statistically similar. Among the measured traits, only weight of 100 grains, was affected by fertilizer effect in sowing date.
Conclusion: Our results showed that the application of Nitrogen and Phosphorus bio-fertilizers together in spring sowing date, as the best treatment, could improve vegetative growth, yield and yield components of chickpea through supplying some elements such as N and P and also other environmental sources for this plant.

Key words: Sowing date, Micro nutrients, Chemical fertilizers, Bio-fertilizers, Chickpea.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sowing date
  • Micro nutrients
  • Chemical fertilizers
  • Bio-fertilizers
  • Chickpea
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