بررسی برهمکنش تلقیح کودهای بیولوژیک و نیتروژن بر رشد و عملکرد سویا تحت شرایط کنترل و عدم کنترل علف‌هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 معاون پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف

تلقیح گیاهان زراعی با قارچ مایکوریزا و باکتری‌های محرک رشد به‌دلیل فوائد زیاد (از جمله افزایش سطح ریشه و تثبیت نیتروژن) باعث افزایش رشد می‌شوند، همچنین نیتروژن به‌دلیل نقش اساسی که در رشد و نمو گیاه زراعی دارد به‌طور مستقیم باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه در گیاهان زراعی می‌شود. از طرف دیگر افزایش رقابت بین گیاه زراعی و علف هرز و کاهش دسترسی گیاه زراعی به منابع باعث کاهش عملکرد دانه می‌شود، بنابراین این آزمایش با هدف بررسی برهمکنش تلقیح قارچ مایکوریزا، رایزوبیوم و کاربرد کود نیتروژنه بر خصوصیات سویا در شرایط وجین و عدم وجین علف هرز انجام شد.

مواد و روش‌ها

این آزمایش در سال 1395 در شهرستان علی‌آباد کتول انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل: 1- مبارزه با علف‌های هرز در دو سطح کنترل کامل علف‌های هرز و عدم کنترل، 2- کاربرد کود بیولوژیک در چهار سطح عدم مصرف (شاهد)، تلقیح بذرها با باکتری Bradyrhizobium japonicum، تلقیح بذرها با قارچ مایکوریزا گونه Glomus mosseae و تلقیح همزمان با مایکوریزا و رایزوبیوم و 3- کاربرد کود نیتروژن (خالص) از منبع کود اوره در سه سطح صفر (شاهد)، 25 و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود.

یافته‌ها

نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد اثر کود بیولوژیک و اثر متقابل علف‌هرز و کود شیمیایی بر حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ سویا معنی-دار بود. بدین صورت که با افزایش کاربرد کود نیتروژن در حالت وجین و عدم وجین علف‌های هرز حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ افزایش پیدا کرد، اما این افزایش در هنگام وجین علف‌های هرز بیشتر بود. همچنین نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد، اثر کود بیولوژیک، کود نیتروژنه و وجین علف‌های هرز بر اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد دانه سویا معنی‌دار بود، به‌طوری‌که با افزایش کاربرد کود نیتروژنه، تلقیح با کود بیولوژیک و وجین علف‌های هرز تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن صد دانه و تعداد دانه در بوته افزایش پیدا کرد. عملکرد دانه با وجین علف‌های هرز 2/22 درصد افزایش پیدا کرد و با کاربرد 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص 3/16 درصد به عملکرد دانه نسبت به حالت شاهد اضافه شد. تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا و رایزوبیوم نیز به‌ترتیب باعث افزایش 6/8 و 2/13 درصدی عملکرد دانه نسبت به حالت شاهد شدند.

نتیجه‌گیری

به‌طور کلی نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد بهبود شرایط رشد برای گیاه سویا (وجین علف هرز و کاربرد کود نیتروژن و بیولوژیک) باعث می‌شود سطح برگ و تجمع ماده خشک در طی فصل رشد افزایش یابد. این افزایش در سطح برگ و تجمع ماده خشک باعث افزایش در اجزای عملکرد سویا شده و در نهایت عملکرد دانه را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Interaction of Inoculation of Biological Fertilizers and nitrogen on Soybean growth and yield Under Weed Free and Weedy Check Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahram Parsa 1
  • hamid abbasdokht 1
  • ahmad gholami 1
  • abolfazl faraji 2
1 Shahrood university of Technology
2 agriculture and natural resources research center of golestan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives:

Inoculation of crops with mycorrhiza fungi and growth-promoting bacteria, due to the high benefits (including increased root area and nitrogen fixation) increase the growth, and also nitrogen due to the important role that in crop growth and development directly increases the seed yield in crops. On the other hand, increasing competition between crops-weeds and reducing the access of crops to resources reduces seed yield. Therefore, this experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the interaction of mycorrhiza, rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen fertilizer on soybean characteristics under weedy check and weed free conditions.

Materials and methods:

This experiment was conducted in the city of Ali Abad Katoul in 2016. Treatments were included 1- Weed management at two levels of weed free and weedy check, 2- inoculation of biological fertilizer at four levels of non-application (control), inoculation of seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, inoculation of seeds with mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and co-inoculation with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium and 3- Application of nitrogen fertilizer (pure) from the source of urea fertilizer at three levels of zero (control), 25 and 50 kg / ha. In this experiment, leaf area and dry matter changes were measured during the growing season and grain yield, biological yield, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight in soybean plant was measured in Soybean plant (Katoul variety).

Results:

The results of this experiment showed that the effect of biological fertilizer and the interaction of weed and chemical fertilizer on maximum soybean leaf area index was significant. So that, with increasing application of nitrogen fertilizer in weedy check and weed free treatments, the maximum leaf area index increased, but this increase was higher in weedy check tratments. Also, the results of this experiment showed that the effect of biological fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer and weed management on yield components and seed yield was significant. So, with increasing application of nitrogen fertilizer, inoculation with biological fertilizer and weed control, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight and number of seeds per plant increased. seed yield with weed control increased 22.2% and by using 50 kg of pure nitrogen, 16.3% was added to seed yield compared to control. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium also increased 8.6% and 13.2% of seed yield, respectively, as compared to the control.

Conclusion:

In general, the results showed improved growth conditions for soybean (weed control and the use of chemical and biological fertilizers) makes the leaf area and dry matter accumulation during the growing season increase. This increase in leaf area and dry matter accumulation cause increases in yield components of soybean and eventually increased seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soybean
  • weed control
  • urea fertilizer
  • seed yield components
  • maximum leaf area
1. Albrizio, R., Todorovic, M., Matic, T., and Maria Stellacci A. 2010. Comparing the interactive effects of water and nitrogen on durum wheat and barley grown in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res., 115: 179–190.
2. Arabameri, R. 2008. Predicting kernel number and biomass retranslocation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Thesis of M.Sc, Gorgan Uni. Agric Sci. Natur Resour. 89p. (In Persian)
3. Bedarvandi, B., and Madhaj, A. 2005. Chemical and physical combination of weeds of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in Khuzestan province. Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases Research, The first weed science conference in Iran Mashhad. Des., 5-6. 5p. (In Persian)
4. Beltrano, J., and Ronco, M.G. 2008. Improved tolerance of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought stress and rewatering by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum: effect on growth and cell membrane stability. Braz. Soc. Plant Physiol., 20: 1. 29-37.
5. Carling, D.E., and Brown, M.F. 1982. Anatomy and physiology of vesicular-arbuscular and nonmycorrhizal roots. Phytopathol., 72: 1108-1114.
6. Cavero, J., Zaragoza, C., Bastiaans, L., Suso, M.L., and Pardo, A. 2000. The relevance of morphological plasticity in the simulation of competition between maize and Datura stramonium. Weed Res., 40: 146-180.
7. Ehdaei, B., and Waines, J.G. 2001. Sowing date and nitrogen rate effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning in bread and durum wheat. Field Crops Res., 73: 47-61.
8. Ehtshami, S.M.R., Chaichi, M.R., Golshi, S., and Kales, Sh. 2005. Influence of weeding time on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr). J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Res., 12(6): 71-79. (In Persian)
9. Elkoca, E., Kantar, F., and Zengin, H. 2005. Weed control in lentil (Lens culinaris) in eastern Turkey. New Zealand J. Crop Hort. Sci., 33: 223- 231.
10. Ghadirian, R., Soltani, A., Zainli, A., Chaltea Arabi, M., and Beneficent, A. 2011. Evaluation of nonlinear regression models for use in growth analysis. Electr. J. Crop Prod., 4(3): 55-77. (In Persian)
11. Gheysari, M., Mirlatifi, S.M., Bannayan, M., Homaee, M., and Hoogenboom, G. 2009. Interaction of water and nitrogen
on maize grown for silage. Agric. Water Manag., 96: 809-821.
12. Habibi Savadkouhi, M., Perysthedi, H., Amini, A., Abbasian, A., and Karmati, S. 2008. Influence of weed time on species composition, plant density, dry weight and physiological characteristics of corn weeds. J. Weed Knowledge Iran., 4(2): 9-20. (In Persian)
13. Jafarnodeh, S. 2014. Investigating the influence of seed size and sowing date on the leaf area expansion, dry matter accumulation, and green pod and grain yield of faba bean in Gorgan. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Gorgan University of Agric. Sci. Natur. Res., Iran., 112p.
14. Kazemi, Sh., Golshi, S., Ghanbari, A., and Kianoush, Gh. 2005. Effect of planting date and seed inoculation with bacteria on yield and yield components of two soybean cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Res., 12(4): 20-26. (In Persian)
15. Khan, A.G. 2005. Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal contaminated soils in phytoremediation. J. Trace. Elem. Med. Biol., 18: 355–364.
16. Khazaei, H., Parsa, M., and Hoseinpanahi, F. 2008. Effects of native rhizobia inoculation on nodulation chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes under different moisture regimes at the vegetative stage. Iran. J. Crop Res., 6(1): 89-103. (In Persian)
17. Kumudini, S., Hume, D.J., and Chu, G. 2001. Genetic improvements in short season soybeans I. Dry matter accumulation, partitioning and leaf area duration. Crop Sci., 41: 391–398.
18. Maleka, H. 2015. Investigating agronomic and physiological characteristics of corn (Zea mays L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata) in sole and intercropping. Gorgan University of Agric. Sci. Natur. Res, Iran. 129p.
19. Martin, S.G., Van Acker, R.C., and Friesen, F. 2001. Critical period of weed control in spring canola. Weed Sci., 49: 326-333.
20. Mehrabi, Z., and Ehsanzadeh, P. 2010. Study of physiological characteristics
and performance of four sesame cultivars under soil moisture regimes. J. Crops Improv., 13(2): 75-88. (In Persian)
21. Mickelson, J.A., and Renner, K.A. 1997. Weed control using reduced rates of postemeregence herbicides in narrow and wide row soybean. J. Prod. Agric., 10: 431-437.
22. Nehbandani, A., Soltani, A., Zeinali, E., Raeisi, S., and Najafi, R. 2013. Allometric relationships between leaf area and vegetative characteristics in soybean. IJACS J., 6(16): 1127-1136p.
23. Raei, Y., Sedghi, M., and Seyedsharifi, R. 2008. Effects of rhizobial inoculation, urea application and weed on growth and seed filling rate in soybean. J. Agric. Sci. Tech., 12(43): 83-91.
24. Rahemi-karizaki, A. 2005. Predicting interception and use of solar radiation in chickpea. Thesis of M.Sc. Gorgan Uni. Agric. Sci. Natur. Res., 89p. (In Persian)
25. Rajabzadeh Motlagh, F. 2011. Evaluation application of arbuscular mycorrhiza, nitrogen fixing bacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield component of Phaseolus vulgaris. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. (In Persian)
26. Rajcan, I., AghaAlikhani, M., Swanton, C.J., and Tollenaar, M. 2002. Development of redroot pigweed is influenced by light spectral quality and quantity. Crop Sci., 42: 1930-1936.
27. Rezvani, M., Afshang, B., Gholizadeh, A., and Zaefarian, F. 2011. Evaluation of mycorrhizal fungus and phosphate rock effectiveness on growth and uptake of phosphorus in soybean (Glycine max Merr.). J. Soil Manag. Sustain. Prod., 1(2): 97-118.
28. Saber Ali, F., Sadat Noori, A., Hejazi, A., Zand, A., and Baghestani, M.A. 2007. Effect of plant density and planting on growth and yield of maize under competition conditions with Lambsqua (Chenopodium album L.). Quarterly Pajouhesh Va Sazandgi., 74: 143-152. (In Persian)
29. Sadeghi, H., Baghestani, M.A., Akbari, Gh., and Hejazi, A. 2003. Evaluation of Soybean Growth Indices. (Glycine max) and several species of weed in conditions of competition of plant. J. Pests Diseases., 71(2): 87-106. (In Persian)
30. Salvagiotti, F., Cassman, K.G., Specht, J.E., Walters, D.T., Weiss, A., and Dobermann, A. 2008. Nitrogen uptake, fixation and response to fertilizer N in soybeans: A review. Field Crops Res., 108: 1–13.
31. Sharma, A.K. 2002. Biofertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. Agrobios, India. 407p.
32. Shenoy, V.V., and Kalagudi, G.M. 2005. Enhancing plant phosphorus use efficiency for sustainable cropping. Biotechnol. Advan., 23: 501-513.
33. Soltani, A. 2007. Application of SAS in Statistical Analysis. Mashhad Jihad-e- Daneshgahi Press, 182p. (In Persian)
34. Sujatha, M.G., Lingaraju, B.S., Palled, Y.B., and Ashalatha, K.V. 2008. Importance of integrated nutrient management practices in maize under rain fed condition. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 21: 334-338.
35. Veresoglou, S.D., Chen, B., and Rillig, M.C. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and
soil nitrogen cycling. Soil Biol. Biochem., 46: 53-62.
36. Waller, F., Achatz, B., Baltruschat, H., Fodor, J., Becker, K., Fischer, M., Heier, T., Huckelhoven, R., Neumann, C.H., Wettstein, D., Franken, P., and Kogel, K.H. 2005. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance, and higher yield. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 102: 13386-13391.
37. Zeinali, A., Soltani, A., Turanian, M., and Khademi Pir, M. 2013. Investigation of allometric relationships between leaf area and vegetative traits in bean. J. Plant Prod. Res., 20(4): 21-1. (In Persian)
38. Zarei, I., Sohrabi, Y., Heidari, Gh.R., Jalilian, A., and Mohammadi, Kh. 2012. Effects of biofertilizers on grain yield and protein content of two soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. African J. Biotechnol., 11(27): 7028- 7037.
39. Zimmera, S., Messmer, M., Haasec, Th., Piepho, H.P., Mindermann, A., Schulz, H., Habekub, A., Ordon, F., Wilbois, K.P., and Heb, J. 2016. Effects of soybean variety and Bradyrhizobium strains on yield, protein content and biological nitrogen fixation under cool growing conditions in Germany. Europ. J. Agron., 72: 38–46.