تاثیر برخی جدایه‎های باکتریایی در جذب و انتقال پتاسیم گیاه ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشگاه تبریز، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: با وجود مقدار نسبتاً زیادی از پتاسیم در خاک، مشکل دسترسی به منابع پتاسیمی، مهم‎ترین عامل بروز کمبود پتاسیم در گیاهان می‎باشد. بنابراین تجزیه کانی‏های خاک توسط میکروارگانیسم‎ها قابل تأمل بوده و در این بین کاربرد باکتری‎های آزادکننده پتاسیم می‎تواند از اهمیت بیش‎تری برخوردار باشد. بر این اساس این آزمایش با هدف بررسی تأثیر جدایه‎های مختلف باکتریایی در تأمین پتاسیم گیاه ذرت انجام شد.
مواد و روش‎ها: این آزمایش گلخانه‏ای با کاربرد بذور ضدعفونی شده ذرت (رقم سینگل کراس 704)، در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 10 تیمار تلقیح شده با جدایه‎های مختلف باکتریایی متعلق به جنس‌های سودوموناس، باسیلوس، انتروباکتر و ازتوباکتر، تیمارهای کودی (کاربرد کود سولفات پتاسیم به میزان 50% و 100% توصیه کودی) و کنترل منفی (بدون تلقیح باکتری و بدون مصرف کود) بود. آزمایش تا ابتدای فاز زایشی گیاه به طول انجامید و پس از برداشت گیاه و آون خشک کردن نمونه‏های گیاهی، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه توزین شد. در نهایت نمونه‎ها هضم شده و در عصاره‎های به‎دست آمده غلظت و مقدار پتاسیم، فسفر و نیتروژن محاسبه گردید.
یافته‏ها: نتایج نشان داد به غیر از وزن خشک ریشه، فاکتور انتقال و غلظت فسفر اندام هوایی، بقیه پارامترها متأثر از تیمارهای آزمایش بودند. بیش‎ترین مقدار کل پتاسیم در Pseudomonas sp. Az-8 و تیمار کودی 100% برابر با 1582 و 1570 میلی‎گرم بر وزن گیاه به‌دست آمد. در مورد مقدار کل فسفر و نیتروژن هم بالاترین مقادیر در بین تیمارهای باکتریایی به جدایه باکتری Az-8 اختصاص داشت که به ترتیب برابر با 59/50 و 5/264 میلی‎گرم بر وزن گیاه بود. اما بیش‎ترین غلظت و مقدار پتاسیم اندام هوایی در تیمار کودی 100% به ترتیب 55/2% و 29/1077 میلی‎گرم بر وزن اندام هوایی بود. اما در بین تیمارهای باکتری، Azotobacter chroococcum 14SP2-1 با افزایش 24 و 16% نسبت به شاهد، نتایج بهتری را به همراه داشت. بیش‎ترین غلظت و مقدار پتاسیم ریشه (به ترتیب 4/2% و 1/605 میلی‎گرم بر وزن ریشه) نیز در تیمار باکتری Az-8 مشاهده شد.جدایه Az-8 با 5/104% بیش‎ترین کارایی تغذیه پتاسیمی را به خود اختصاص داد. بیش‎ترین وزن خشک اندام هوایی در تیمارهای کودی 50% و 100% (42/44 و 06/44 گرم) مشاهده شد.
نتیجه‎گیری: نتایج کلی این آزمایش نشان داد، تلقیح باکتری‎های مورد آزمون در برخی پارامترهای اندازه‎گیری شده بهتر از کاربرد کود شیمیایی عمل کرده است و علت این امر می‎تواند به تأثیرات زیستی باکتری‎ها در خاک مربوط باشد. به طور کلی جدایه‎های Pseudomonas sp. Az-8، A. chroococcum 14SP2-1 و Enterobacter sp. S16-3 برای انجام آزمایشات تکمیلی پیشنهاد می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of some Bacterial Isolates on Supplying Potassium to Maize

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdiyeh Leylasi Marand 1
  • Mohammad Reza Sarikhani 2
1 Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran.
2 University of Tabriz, Department of soil science
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: There are large amount of K in soil but main of that are not in the available form for plants hence potassium deficiency can occur in this condition. Hence, dissolution of soil minerals with microorganisms is notable and it could be very important to use potassium releasing bacteria for supplying potassium to plants. Accordingly, this experiment was performed in order to determine the effect of different bacterial isolates on providing potassium in corn.
Materials and methods: This greenhouse experiment was performed using completely randomized design with 3 replications and with application of disinfected seeds of corn (single-cross 704). Experiment treatments were including 10 treatments with different bacterial isolates inoculation (including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Azotobacter), fertilizer treatments (K50 and K100; using 50% and 100% of K2SO4 based on fertilizer recommendation) and negative control (no bacterial inoculation and no fertilizer). The experiment prolonged to the beginning of reproductive phase and after harvesting and oven- drying of plant specimen, dry weight of shoot and root were weighed. Eventually, plant samples were digested and concentration of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen were measured in extracts. In addition the amount of elements uptake or content was calculated.
Results: Results showed expect root dry weight, phosphorus transfer factor and shoot phosphorus concentration, all the parameters were significantly affected by treatments. The highest total potassium content were obtained in Pseudomonas sp. Az-8 and 100% fertilizer recommendation, respectively equal to 1582 and 1570 mg/plant. Among bacterial isolates, the highest total content of phosphorus and nitrogen belonged to Az-8 that was equal to 50.59 and 264.5 mg/plant, respectively. But the highest shoot potassium concentration and content were in 100% fertilizer treatment, 2.55% and 1077.289 mg per shoot weight, respectively. But in regard to bacterial isolates, this parameter was measured in A. chroococcum 14SP2-1 with an increasing of 24% and 16% as compared with control. The highest root potassium concentration and content (2.4% and 605.1 mg per root weight, respectively) were observed in Pseudomonas Az-8. This isolate has the highest efficiency of potassium nutrition by 104.5%. The maximum shoot dry weight was observed in 50% and 100% fertilizer treatments (44.42 and 44.06 g).
Conclusion: In general results of experiment showed, some bacterial inoculations were better than chemical fertilizers in some parameters and it could be related to biological effects of bacteria in soil. Overall, it could be suggested to use selected bacteria such as Pseudomonas Az-8, A. chroococcum 14SP2-1 and Enterobacter S16-3 for ongoing and future experiments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bacterial inoculation
  • corn
  • isolate
  • potassium releasing bacteria
1.Arzanesh, M.H., Alikhani, H.A., Khavazi, K., Rahimian, H.A., and Miransari, M. 2011. Wheat growth enhancement by Azospirillum sp. under drought stress. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27: 2.197-205.
2.Bakhshandeh, S., Khormali, F., Dordipour, E., Olamaei, M., and Kehl, M. 2011. Comparing the weathering of soil and sedimentary palygorskite in the rhizosphere zone. Appl. Clay Sci., 54: 235-241.
3.Biari, A., Gholami, A., and Rahmani, H.A. 2008. Growth promotion and enhanced nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) by application of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria in arid region of Iran. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 6.1015-1020. (In Persian)
4.Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B., and Basnet, M. 2006. Plant growth promotion and induction of resistance in Camellia sinensis by Bacillus megaterium. J. Basic Microbiol. 46: 3.95-186.
5.Deilamirad, M., Sarikhani, M.R., and Oustan, Sh. 2017. Effect of potassium releasing Pseudomonas on growth and K uptake of tomato in soils with different amount of available K. J. Water Soil.,
31: 4.1159-1170. (In Persian)
6.Eidizadeh, Kh., Mahdavi Damghani, A.M., Ebrahimpoor, F., and Sabahi, H. 2012. Effects of integrated application of biological and chemical fertilizer and application method of biofertilizer on yield and yield components of maize. J. Crop Prod., 4: 3.21-35.
7.Fallah Qazaani, M., Habibi, D., Pazoki, A.R., and Khavazi, K. 2012. Effect of some Azotobacter chroococcum spices and humic acid on production auxin hormone, yield and yild components of wheat under different nitrogen levels, Iranian J. Agron. Plant Breed., 8: 2.97-109. (In Persian)
8.Gabos, M.B., Abreu, C.A., and Coscione, A.R. 2009. EDTA assisted phytoremediation of a Pb contaminated soil: Metal leaching and uptake by jack beans. Sci. Agric. J., 66: 4.506-514.
9.Haby, V.A., Russelle, M.D., and Skogley, E.O. 1990. Testing soils for potassium, calcium and magnesium. P 181-227. In: S.H. Mickelson (ed), Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, Madison, WI., USA.
10.Heinrichs, D.E., Rahn, A., Dale, S.E., and Sebulsky, M.T. 2004. Iron transport systems in pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus. P 387-401. In: crosa J.H., Mey A.R., and payne S.M., (eds.), Iron Transport in Bacteria, Washington, DC: ASM Press.
11.Heiydarian Barugh, Z., Aliasgharzad, N., and Sarikhani, M.R. 2011. Importance of Azospirillum biofertilizers and its application in sustainable agriculture. The 1st Iranian Fertilizer Challenges congress: Half a century of the fertilizer consumption. 29 February-2 March, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
12.Hu, X.F., Chen, J., and Guo, G.F. 2006. Two phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria isolated from Tiannumountain, Zhejiang, China. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22: 9.983-990.
13.Kanimozhi, K., and Panneerselvam, A. 2010. Studies on isolation and nitrogen fixation ability of Azospirillum spp. isolated from Thanjavur district. Der Chemica. Sinica., 1: 3.138-145.
14.Keshavarz Zarjani, J., Aliasgharzad, N., and Oustan, Sh. 2012. Effects of six strains of potassium releasing bacteria on growth and potassium uptake of tomato Plant. J. Water Soil Sci., 23: 2.245-255. (In Persian)
15.Keshavarz, J., Aliasgharzad, N., Oustan, Sh., Emadi, M., and Ahmadi, A. 2013. Isolation and characterization of potassium solubilizing bacteria in some Iranian soils, Arch. Agron. Soil Sci., 59: 12.1713-1723.
16.Khavazi, K. et al. 2012. Protocols in assessment of biofertilizers, Soil Water Res. Inst. (In Persian)
17.Khosravi, H. 2013. Biofertilizers containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: strengths and weaknesses. J. Land Manag., 1: 1.33-46. (In Persian)
18.Madani, O., Sarikhani, M.R., and Oustan, S. 2015. Inoculation effects of potassium releasing bacteria on K nutrition of tomato in sand-muscovite medium and identification of efficient isolates. J. Water Soil Sci., 26: 1.259-271. (In Persain)
19.Mahanta, D., and Rai, R.K. 2008. Effects of sources of phosphorus and biofertilizers on productivity and profitability of soybean (Glycine max) – wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. Indian J. Agron., 53: 279–284.
20.Malakouti, M.J., and Gheibi, M.N. 1988. Determine the Critical Nutrients Strategic and Proper Fertilizer Recommendations in the Country. Publication of Agricultural Education, Training and Equipping the Human Resources Department of Tat, The Ministry of Agriculture, Karaj. 64p. (In Persian)
21.Malakouti, M.J., Shahabi, A.A., and Bazargan, K. 2005. Potassium in Iranian Agriculture. Sana. Press, Tehran. 381p. (In Persian)
22.Meena, V.S., Maurya, B.R., and Verma, G.P. 2014. Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K+ availability in agricultural soils. Microbiol. Res., 169: 5.337–347.
23.Mirza, M.S., Rasul, G., Mehnazs Ladha, J.K., Ali, S., and Malik, K.A. 2000. Beneficial effects of inoculated nitrogen-fixing bacteria on rice. P 191–204. In: Ladha J.K., and Reddy P.M. (eds), The Quest for Nitrogen Fixation in Rice. International Rice Research
Institute, India.
24.Moradi, S.H., Sarikhani, M.R., and Aliasgharzad, N. 2016. The effect of some bacterial isolates on root growth and nutrient uptake in corn (Zea mays L.), J. Agric. Sci. Sustainable Prod., 26: 4. 33-47. (In Persian)
25.Norouzi, S., and Khademi, H. 2010. Ability of alfalfa (medicago sativa L.) to take up potassium from different micaceous minerals and consequent vermiculitization, Plant Soil J. 328: 1.83-93.
26.Olsen, S.R., and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Phosphorus. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1, chemical and biological properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., Pp: 403–427.
27.Rahimzadeh, N., Olamaei, M., Khormali, F., Dordipour, E., and Amini, A. 2013. The effect of silicate dissolving bacteria on potassium release from glauconite in canola (Brassica napus) rhizosphere. J. Soil Manage., Sustain. Prod., 3: 2.169-185. (In Persian)
28.Roesty, D., Gaur, R., Johri, B.N., Imfeld, G., Sharma, S., Kawaljeet, K., and Aragno, M. 2006. Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bioinoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. J. Soil Biol. Biochem., 38: 5.1111-1120.
29.Rowell, D.L. 1994. Soil Science: Method and Application. Longman Scientific and Technical, Soil and Plant Analysis. Wageningen Agric. University, The Netherland, 350p.
30.Ruzhen, J., and Yuhong, P. 2010. Preliminary Study on Phosphate Solubilization and K-releasing Abilities of Rhizobium tropici Martinez-Romeroet al. Strains from Woody Legumes. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1– 6 August, Brisbane, Australia, Pp: 104-107.
31.Saber, M.S.M., and Zanaty, M.R. 1981. Effectiveness of inoculation white silicate bacteria in relation to the potassium content of plants using the intensive cropping technique. J. Agric. Res., 59(4): 280-289.
32.Sadeghi, S., Oustan, Sh., Najafi, N., Valizadeh, M., and Monirifar, H. 2017. Effect of cadmium and zink interactions on growth and chemical composition of corn (Zea mays cv. Single cross). J. Water Soil., 31: 2.460-477. (In Persian)
33.Sarikhani, M.R. 2015. Increasing potassium (K) release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria. Biol. J. Microorganism., 4: 16.87-96.
34.Sarikhani, M.R., Madani, O., and Oustan, Sh. 2017. Study on potassium release from mica minerals and its alternative as influenced by microbial inoculation. J. Water Soil., 31: 3.900-914. (In Persian)
35.Sheng, X.F., and Huang, W.Y. 2002. Study on the conditions of potassium release by strain NBT of silicate bacteria. Sci. Agric. Sinica., 35: 6.673-677.
36.Sheng, X.F., Zhao, F., He, L.Y., Qiu, G., and Chen, L. 2008. Isolation and characterization of silicate mineral solubilizing Bacillus globisporus Q12 from the surfaces of weathered feldspar. Can. J. Microbiol., 54: 12.1064-1068.
37.Sugumaran, P., and Janarthanam, B. 2007. Solubilization of potassium containing minerals by bacteria and their effect on plant growth. World J. Agric. Sci., 3: 3.350-355.
38.Surapaneni, A., Palmer, A.S., Tillman, R.W., Kirkman, J.H., and Geregg, P.E.H. 2002. The mineralogy and potassium supplying power of some loessial and related soils of New Zealand. Geoderma J., 110: 3.191-204.
39.Verma, J.P., Yadav, J., Tiwari, K.N., and Jaiswal, D.K. 2014. Evaluation of plant growth promoting activities of microbial strains and their effect on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in India. Soil Biol. Biochem., 70: 33-37.
40.Waling, I., Vark, W.V., Houba, V.G.J., and Van der lee, J.J. 1989. Soil and Plant Analysis, a Series of Syllabi. Part 7. Plant Analysis Procedures. Wageningen Agriculture University, The Netherland, 179p.