تأثیر ریزجانداران افزاینده رشد بر برخی صفات رویشی و عملکرد دانه برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در مقادیر مختلف کود پتاسیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناس‌ارشد زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان و دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: افزایش و پایداری تولید برنج یکی از اهداف تولید این محصول در کشور می‌باشد که برای دستیابی به این هدف و بر اساس اصول کشاورزی پایدار رعایت نکات به‌زراعی از جمله استفاده مناسب و بهینه از کودهای شیمیایی و یا کاربرد کودهای زیستی به‌عنوان جایگزین و یا مکمل مناسب ضروری می‌باشد. همچنین، بهره‌گیری از نهاده‌های تجدیدپذیر مانند ریزجانداران افزاینده رشد (با توانایی تثبیت نیتروژن اتمسفری و محلول کردن ترکیبات نامحلول مانند فسفر و پتاسیم، تولید هورمون‌های رشد، آنزیم‌ها و اسیدهای آلی) به همراه سودمندی‌های اکولوژیکی بالا و آسیب‌های زیست‌محیطی پایین‌ امری لازم است. در همین راستا، پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی اثرات استعمال ریزجانداران افزاینده رشد بر بهبود برخی صفات رویشی و عملکرد دانه برنج (رقم ’طارم محلی‘) در مقادیر مختلف کود سولفات پتاسیم اجرا شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش در یکی از مزارع زراعین واقع در شهرستان جویبار از استان مازندران به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل چهار سطح کود سولفات پتاسیم (0، 60، 120 و 180 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و چهار سطح تلقیح ریشه گیاهچه برنج (شاهد، تلقیح نشاء تنها با باکتری Pantoea ananatis، تلقیح نشاء تنها با قارچ اندوفیت Piriformospora indica و تلقیح نشاء با قارچ و باکتری به‌صورت ترکیبی (به نسبت 50:50)) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. در مرحله گرده‌افشانی صفات رویشی مانند ارتفاع بوته، تعداد کل برگ در کپه، شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد کل پنجه در کپه و روز تا مرحله گرده‌افشانی اندازه‌گیری‌ شد. عملکرد دانه نیز در زمان رسیدگی برداشت با حدف اثر حاشیه‌ای در مساحتی معادل یک مترمربع ثبت گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر ساده سطوح مختلف کود پتاسیم، تیمارهای تلقیح و اثر متقابل بین آن‌ها در تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه در سطح احتمال یک و پنج درصد معنی‌دار بود. با افزایش مصرف کود پتاسیم از صفر تا 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار، ارتفاع بوته از 1/142 تا 150 سانتی‌متر (6 درصد)، تعداد کل پنجه در کپه از 2/9 تا 11 عدد (1/20 درصد)، تعداد کل برگ در کپه از 2/64 تا 4/65 عدد (2 درصد)، شاخص سطح برگ از 9/3 تا 6/5 (2/41 درصد) و عملکرد دانه از 8/448 تا 7/585 گرم در مترمربع (5/30 درصد) نسبت به شاهد افزایش معنی‌دار و تعداد روز تا گرده‌افشانی نیز از 6/57 به 2/56 روز (3/2 درصد) کاهش معنی‌داری نسبت به شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) نشان داد. اگرچه با افزایش بیشتر مصرف کود تا 180 کیلوگرم در هکتار مقادیر در صفات کمی بیشتر بود اما این اختلاف‌ها از لحاظ آماری معنی‌دار نبودند. علاوه بر این، تلقیح تنها با باکتری، تلقیح تنها با قارچ و تلقیح ترکیبی قارچ و باکتری به‌ترتیب باعث افزایش معنی‌دار 4/4، 1/4 و 4/3 درصدی ارتفاع بوته؛ 7/8، 7/8 و 7/22 درصدی تعداد کل پنجه در کپه؛ 8/2، 4/2 و 4/4 درصدی تعداد کل برگ در کپه؛ 1/13، 0/15 و 2/27 درصدی شاخص سطح برگ؛ 2/11، 2/11 و 4/19 درصدی عملکرد دانه و کاهش معنی‌دار 0/2، 0/2 و 3/3 درصدی روز تا گرده‌افشانی نسبت به شاهد (بدون تلقیح) شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: استفاده ریزجانداران مورد مطالعه به‌ویژه کاربرد ترکیبی آن‌ها به‌عنوان بهترین تیمار باعث بهبود تمامی صفات رویشی و عملکرد دانه برنج نسبت به شاهد شد. در زمان کاربرد ترکیبی قارچ و باکتری علاوه بر کاهش مصرف کود پتاسیم در حدود 55 کیلوگرم در هکتار (40 درصد)، عملکرد دانه به مقدار 79 گرم در مترمربع (6/18 درصد) نسبت به شاهد افزایش معنی‌دار یافت. در مجموع، جهت نیل به کشاورزی پایدار به خوبی می‌توان از این ریزجانداران به تنهایی و یا به صورت ترکیبی در مقادیر کاهش‌یافته کود سولفات پتاسیم استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of plant growth promoting micro-organisms on some vegetative characteristics and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different levels of potassium fertilizer

نویسنده [English]

  • Esmaeil Bakhshandeh 3
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: One of the aims of Iranian farmers is self-sufficiency in rice production. To purpose this aim according to the sustainable agricultural laws, it is important to use an appropriate agronomic management such as improving use of chemical fertilizers and or application of biofertilizers in both method; alone and or along with declined chemical fertilizers. Also, use of renewable inputs such as plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM; with the ability of biological nitrogen fixation, solubilize insoluble minerals like phosphorus and potassium, phytohormone production and or production of enzymes and organic acids) with high ecological benefits and low environmental damages is necessary today. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of two PGPM on some vegetative characteristics and grain yield (GY) of rice (cv. ‘Tarom Mahali’) at different amounts of potassium sulfate fertilizer (PSF).
Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted in a paddy field of Mazandaran province (Juybar city) as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2016. Four levels of PSF (zero, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha–1) were used as the main plot and four levels of inoculation with PGPM (Pantoea ananatis and Piriformospora indica were applied individually and a co-inoculation with Pa. ananatis and Pi. indica (50:50) and non-inoculated as control) served as the sub plots. Based on the results of soil test, 50 kg ha–1 of triple super phosphate and all levels of PSF were used before transplanting time and 150 kg ha–1 of urea was applied twice (100 and 50 kg ha–1 at transplanting and heading stage, respectively). At anthesis stage, some vegetative characteristics including plant height (PH), total number leaves hill-1 (TNL), leaf area index (LAI), total tillers numbers hill-1 (TTN) and the time of beginning anthesis stage (BAS) were measured. GY was also determined at harvesting time by removing of 1 m–2 of rice plants from each plot.
Results: The results of this study indicate that all studied traits significantly affected by the simple effect of PSF and PGPM inoculations and also their interactions was significant at 0.01 and 0.05 probability level. As PSF increased from 0 to 120 kg ha-1, the significant increase in PH (from 142.1 to 150 cm), TTN (from 9.2 to 11.0 count), TNL (from 64.2 to 65.4 count), LAI (from 3.9 to 5.6) and GY (from 448.8 to 585.7 gr m-2) was 6, 20, 2, 41 and 30%, respectively, as compared to the control. In addition, BAS decreased significantly by 2.3% (from 57.6 to 56.2 days after transplanting), as compared to the control (without PSF). Although, an increasing of PSF from 120 to 180 kg ha-1 resulted in an increase in all studied traits, but differences were not statistically significant among treatments. In addition, single inoculations with Pa. ananatis, Pi. indica and co-inoculation treatment significantly increased PH by 4.4, 4.1 and 3.4%, TTN by 8.7, 8.7 and 22.7%, TNL by 2.8, 2.4 and 4.4%, LAI by 13.1, 15.0 and 27.2% and GY by 11.2, 11.2 and 19.4% and decreased significantly BAS by 2.0, 2.0 and 3.3%, as compared to the control (non-inoculation), respectively.
Conclusion: Based on our finding the co-inoculation with Pa. ananatis and Pi. indica as the best treatment, improved the values of all studied traits when compared with the control condition. In general, application of this treatment resulted in decreasing PSF about 55 kg ha-1 (40 % lower than the control) and increasing GY about 79 gr m-2 (18.6% more than the control). Consequently, these PGPM can be used along with lower values of PSF as well as, particularly in sustainable rice cultivation systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pantoea ananatis
  • Piriformospora indica
  • plant growth promoting micro-organisms
  • potassium sulfate
  • Rice
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