اصلاح موتاسیونی با پرتوتابی گاما برای بهبود انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی و تولید در گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمانشاه، مرکز تحقیقات بیولوژی پزشکی

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: در شرایط تنش‌ خشکی که از جمله مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکننده عملکرد گندم در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک محسوب می‌شود انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی به منظور پر کردن دانه‌ها اهمیت بیشتری می‌یابد. جهت درک فیزیولوژیکی انتقال مجدد و کمک به معرفی رقم متحمل به تنش خشکی مواد ژنتیکی موتانت‌ ابزاری بسیار ارزشمند به شمار می‌روند. هدف این تحقیق مشخص کردن دلایل تنوع ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم نان در فرآیند انتقال مجدد و ارتباط آن با عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش خشکی و نقش اصلاح موتاسیونی در برنامه‌های اصلاحی گندم نان برای تنش خشکی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: دو لاین موتانت پیشرفته گندم نان (T-67-60 وT-65-7-1 ) که از نظر انتقال مجدد بهبودیافته‌اند به همراه تیپ وحشی آن‌ها (رقم طبسی) در دو شرایط رطوبتی (مطلوب و 40-30 درصـد ظرفیت مزرعه) به صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل دو عاملی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار کشت شدند. اعمال تنش در مرحله ظهور کامل سنبله (زادوکس 60) آغاز شد و جهت اندازه‌گیری انتقال مجدد و پارامترهای مرتبط با آن نمونه‌برداری‌ها در 5 مرحله و در فاصله‌های زمانی 7 روزه (در زمان‌های صفر، 7، 14، 21 و 28 روز پس از گرده‌افشانی) به تفکیک میانگره‌های ساقه اصلی صورت گرفت.
یافته‌ها: با توجه به نتایج می‌توان گفت ظرفیت ژنوتیپ‌ها در ذخیره مواد فتوسنتزی پیش از وقوع تنش انتهایی و قدرت بیشتر مخزن (عملکرد) از عوامل تعیین‌کننده میزان انتقال مجدد ساقه می‌باشنـد. نظر به بروز پیری احتمالی در لاین‌های موتانت در اثر تنش خشکی (به عنوان عامل محرک انتقال مجدد)، عملکرد و حداکثر چگالی وزنی بیشتر، این لاین‌ها از نظر انتقال مجدد و کارایی انتقال مجدد نسبت به تیپ وحشی خود در شرایط بهتری قرار داشتند. استفاده از تمام ظرفیت طول ساقه نقش کلیدی در انتقال ذخایر ساقه دارد. لاین‌ موتانت T-65-7-1 در جهت پاسخ مناسب‌تر به شرایط تنش خشکی، از پتانسیل قسمت‎های مختلف ساقه (میانگره پدانکل، میانگره پنالتیمیت و میانگره‌های پایینی) در انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی استفاده کرد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می‌توان گفت دلایل تنوع ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان در فرآیند انتقال مجدد ناشی از تفاوت در دریافت سیگنال‌های پدیده پیری در اثر تنش خشکی، در قدرت مخزن، در مقدار ذخایر مواد فتوسنتزی پیش از گرده‌افشانی و در استفاده از ظرفیت ذخایر طول ساقه (میانگره‌های مختلف ساقه) می‌باشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می‌توان گفت دلایل تنوع ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان در فرآیند انتقال مجدد ناشی از تفاوت در دریافت سیگنال‌های پدیده پیری در اثر تنش خشکی، در قدرت مخزن، در مقدار ذخایر مواد فتوسنتزی پیش از گرده‌افشانی و در استفاده از ظرفیت ذخایر طول ساقه (میانگره‌های مختلف ساقه) می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mutation breeding by gama irradiation for improvement of assimilate remobilization and production in wheat

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeed Bagherikia 1
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Under drought stress condition as one of the most important limiting factor of seed yield in wheat at arid and semi arid regions, the remobilization of assimilates gain more value for filling the grains. The mutant genetic materials are invaluable tools to understand the physiology of remobilization and to help the introducing new drought tolerant cultivars. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons of variation in bread wheat genotypes in the process of remobilization and its relationship with grain yield in drought stress conditions and the role of mutation breeding in bread wheat breeding programs under drought stress.
Materials and methods: Two advanced mutant lines of bread wheat (T-67-60 and T-65-7-1) having improved remobilization along with the wild type (cv. Tabasi) were planted at two moisture conditions (normal and 30-40% of field capacity) as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Drought treatment initiated at full heading stage (Zadoks 60) and for measuring remobilization and other related parameters, sampling from internodes of the main stem was conducted over 5 times at intervals of 7 days (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days after anthesis).
Results: Based on the results the capacity of genotypes to storage assimilates before terminal stress and high capability of the sink are main factors to determine the amounts of stem remobilization. Considering the senescence possibly induced by drought stress on the mutant lines (as a stimulating factor for remobilization), yield and maximum specific weight, remobilization and remobilization efficiency of the lines were in better situation than the wild type (cv. Tabasi). Also the using the full-length potential of stem had a key role in the mobilization of stem reserves. For better response to stress conditions, mutant line T-65-7-1 has utilized from potential of all parts of the stem (peduncle, penultimate and lower Internodes) for remobilization of assimilates.
Conclusion: Based on the results we can say that the reasons of variation in bread wheat genotypes in the process of remobilization are the difference in receiving signals of senescence phenomenon under drought stress, capability of the sink, the rate of the reserves assimilated before anthesis and the use of reserves capacity over stem (different stem internodes).
Conclusion: Based on the results we can say that the reasons of variation in bread wheat genotypes in the process of remobilization are the difference in receiving signals of senescence phenomenon under drought stress, capability of the sink, the rate of the reserves assimilated before anthesis and the use of reserves capacity over stem (different stem internodes).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mutation
  • Drought stress
  • Senescence
  • Yield
  • Bread Wheat
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